Works Councils and Environmental Investment: Theory and Evidence from German Panel Data
Firms may underinvest in local environmental protection even from the private viewpoint of its owners and employees, but works councils may help mitigate this problem. We show that increases in environmental investments when councils are present could be employee-led, firm-led, or jointly-led. We test these alternatives with German panel data using a random effects probit model, and find a strong and robust relationship between investments in improving local environmental quality and council activities. This effect is largest and most significant when the council is active in environmental matters, and when management views employee participation as productive. With the exception of product innovation, we generally do not find analogous effects on investments that reduce environmental impacts more remote from the workplace, or for other types of investment. We conclude that the higher environmental investments in establishments with councils are largely employee-led or jointly-led; but the significant effect of management attitudes toward participation suggests that genuine management-employee cooperation and the tradeoffs it implies is taking place.
|Date of creation:||2002|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Poschingerstrasse 5, 81679 Munich|
Phone: +49 (89) 9224-0
Fax: +49 (89) 985369
Web page: http://www.cesifo-group.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Kim, Seung-Wook & Fishback, Price V, 1999. "The Impact of Institutional Change on Compensating Wage Differentials for Accident Risk: South Korea, 1984-1990," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 18(3), pages 231-48, October.
- Dow, Gregory K., 1987. "The function of authority in transaction cost economics," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 13-38, March.
- Dow, Gregory K, 1993. "Why Capital Hires Labor: A Bargaining Perspective," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 83(1), pages 118-34, March.
- FitzRoy, Felix & Kraft, Kornelius, 2004.
"Co-Determination, Efficiency, and Productivity,"
IZA Discussion Papers
1442, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Pfeiffer, Friedhelm & Rennings, Klaus, 1999. "Employment impacts of cleaner production: evidence from a German study using case studies and surveys," ZEW Discussion Papers 99-32, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Addison, John T & Schnabel, Claus & Wagner, Joachim, 1996. "German Works Councils, Profits, and Innovation," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(4), pages 555-82.
- Marianne Bertrand, 1999.
"From the Invisible Handshake to the Invisible Hand? How Import Competition Changes the Employment Relationship,"
NBER Working Papers
6900, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Marianne Bertrand, 2004. "From the Invisible Handshake to the Invisible Hand? How Import Competition Changes the Employment Relationship," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 22(4), pages 723-766, October.
- Askildsen, Jan Erik & Ireland, Norman J, 1993. "Human Capital, Property Rights, and Labour Managed Firms," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 45(2), pages 229-42, April.
- Michael E. Porter & Claas van der Linde, 1995. "Toward a New Conception of the Environment-Competitiveness Relationship," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 97-118, Fall.
- FitzRoy, Felix R & Kraft, Kornelius, 1993. " Economic Effects of Codetermination," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 95(3), pages 365-75.
- Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1995. "Complementarities and fit strategy, structure, and organizational change in manufacturing," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(2-3), pages 179-208, April.
- David Weil, 1999. "Are Mandated Health and Safety Committees Substitutes for or Supplements to Labor Unions?," ILR Review, Cornell University, ILR School, vol. 52(3), pages 339-360, April.
- Dreze, Jacques H & Hagen, Kare P, 1978. "Choice of Product Quality: Equilibrium and Efficiency," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(3), pages 493-513, May.
- Clive Bull, 1987. "The Existence of Self-Enforcing Implicit Contracts," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 102(1), pages 147-159.
- Fitzroy, Felix R & Kraft, Kornelius, 1987. "Efficiency and Internal Organization: Works Councils in West German Firms," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 54(216), pages 493-504, November.
- George Baker & Robert Gibbons & Kevin J. Murphy, 1994. "Subjective Performance Measures in Optimal Incentive Contracts," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 109(4), pages 1125-1156.
- Smith, Stephen C., 1991. "On the economic rationale for codetermination law," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 261-281, December.
- Jan Erik Askildsen & Uwe Jirjahn & Stephan C. Smith, 2002.
"Works Councils and Environmental Investment: Theory and Evidence from German Panel Data,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
785, CESifo Group Munich.
- Askildsen, Jan Erik & Jirjahn, Uwe & Smith, Stephen C., 2006. "Works councils and environmental investment: Theory and evidence from German panel data," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 346-372, July.
- Butler, J S & Moffitt, Robert, 1982. "A Computationally Efficient Quadrature Procedure for the One-Factor Multinomial Probit Model," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(3), pages 761-64, May.
- Richard B. Freeman & Edward P. Lazear, 1994.
"An Economic Analysis of Works Councils,"
NBER Working Papers
4918, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Heywood, John S & Hubler, Olaf & Jirjahn, Uwe, 1998. "Variable Payment Schemes and Industrial Relations: Evidence from Germany," Kyklos, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 51(2), pages 237-57.
- Siebert, W Stanley & Wei, X, 1994. "Compensating Wage Differentials for Workplace Accidents: Evidence for Union and Nonunion Workers in the UK," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 9(1), pages 61-76, July.
- Drago, Robert & Turnbull, Geoffrey K., 1988. "Individual versus group piece rates under team technologies," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 1-10, March.
- Dreze, Jacques H, 1976. "Some Theory of Labor Management and Participation," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 44(6), pages 1125-39, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ces:ceswps:_785. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Klaus Wohlrabe)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.