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A Note on the Cointegration of Consumption, Income, and Wealth


  • Rudd, Jeremy

    (Federal Reserve Board)

  • Whelan, Karl

    (Central Bank and Financial Services Authority of Ireland)


Lettau and Ludvigson (2001) argue that a log-linearized approximation to an aggregate budget constraint predicts that log consumption, assets, and labour income will be cointegrated. They conclude that this cointegrating relationship is present in U.S. data, and that the estimated cointegrating residual forecasts future asset growth. This note examines whether the cointegrating relationship suggested by Lettau and Ludvigson's theoretical framework actually exists. We demonstrate that we cannot reject the hypothesis that cointegration is absent from the data once we employ measures of consumption, assets, and labor income that are jointly consistent with an underlying budget constraint. By contrast, Lettau and Ludvigson use a set of variables that do not belong together in an aggregate budget constraint, thereby testing a cointegrating relationship that is not implied by their theory.

Suggested Citation

  • Rudd, Jeremy & Whelan, Karl, 2002. "A Note on the Cointegration of Consumption, Income, and Wealth," Research Technical Papers 5/RT/02, Central Bank of Ireland.
  • Handle: RePEc:cbi:wpaper:5/rt/02

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. MacKinnon, James G & Haug, Alfred A & Michelis, Leo, 1999. "Numerical Distribution Functions of Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(5), pages 563-577, Sept.-Oct.
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    3. Osterwald-Lenum, Michael, 1992. "A Note with Quantiles of the Asymptotic Distribution of the Maximum Likelihood Cointegration Rank Test Statistics," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 54(3), pages 461-472, August.
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    5. John Y. Campbell & N. Gregory Mankiw, 1989. "Consumption, Income and Interest Rates: Reinterpreting the Time Series Evidence," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 1989, Volume 4, pages 185-246 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Palumbo, Michael & Rudd, Jeremy & Whelan, Karl, 2006. "On the Relationships Between Real Consumption, Income, and Wealth," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 24, pages 1-11, January.
    7. Martin Lettau, 2001. "Consumption, Aggregate Wealth, and Expected Stock Returns," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(3), pages 815-849, June.
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    9. Johansen, Soren, 1991. "Estimation and Hypothesis Testing of Cointegration Vectors in Gaussian Vector Autoregressive Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 59(6), pages 1551-1580, November.
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    11. Phillips, Peter C B & Ouliaris, S, 1990. "Asymptotic Properties of Residual Based Tests for Cointegration," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 58(1), pages 165-193, January.
    12. Johansen, Soren, 1988. "Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 12(2-3), pages 231-254.
    13. Johansen, Soren & Juselius, Katarina, 1990. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation and Inference on Cointegration--With Applications to the Demand for Money," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 52(2), pages 169-210, May.
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    Cited by:

    1. Paul P.J. Gao & Kevin X.D. Huang, 2008. "Aggregate Consumption-Wealth Ratio and the Cross-Section of Stock Returns: Some International Evidence," Annals of Economics and Finance, Society for AEF, vol. 9(1), pages 1-37, May.
    2. Slacalek Jiri, 2009. "What Drives Personal Consumption? The Role of Housing and Financial Wealth," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 9(1), pages 1-37, October.
    3. Paradiso, Antonio & Casadio, Paolo & Rao, B. Bhaskara, 2012. "US inflation and consumption: A long-term perspective with a level shift," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 1837-1849.
    4. Belén Nieto & Rosa Rodríguez, 2006. "The Consumption/Wealth and Book/Market Ratios in a Dynamic Asset Pricing Contex," Spanish Economic Review, Springer;Spanish Economic Association, vol. 8(3), pages 199-226, September.
    5. Christopher D. Carroll & Misuzu Otsuka & Jirka Slacalek, 2006. "How Large Is the Housing Wealth Effect? A New Approach," NBER Working Papers 12746, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Jiri Slacalek, 2006. "International Wealth Effects," Computing in Economics and Finance 2006 425, Society for Computational Economics.
    7. Bruno Eugène & Philippe Jeanfils & Benoît Robert, 2003. "La consommation privée en Belgique," Working Paper Document 39, National Bank of Belgium.
    8. Gary Koop & Simon M. Potter & Rodney W. Strachan, 2008. "Re-Examining the Consumption-Wealth Relationship: The Role of Model Uncertainty," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 40(2-3), pages 341-367, March.
    9. Hamburg, Britta & Hoffmann, Mathias & Keller, Joachim, 2005. "Consumption, wealth and business cycles: why is Germany different?," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2005,16, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    10. Vincent Labhard & Gabriel Sterne & Chris Young, 2005. "Wealth and consumption: an assessment of the international evidence," Bank of England working papers 275, Bank of England.
    11. Chen, Jie, 2006. "Re-evaluating the association between housing wealth and aggregate consumption: New evidence from Sweden," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 321-348, December.
    12. Mathias Hoffmann, 2005. "Proprietary Income, Entrepreneurial Risk and the Predictability of U.S. Stock Returns," Computing in Economics and Finance 2005 229, Society for Computational Economics.
    13. Thomas Nitschka, 2005. "The U.S. consumption-wealth ratio and foreign stock markets: International evidence for return predictability," Money Macro and Finance (MMF) Research Group Conference 2005 22, Money Macro and Finance Research Group.
    14. Casadio, Paolo & Paradiso, Antonio, 2010. "Inflation and consumption in a long term perspective with level shift," MPRA Paper 25980, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Britta Hamburg & Mathias Hoffmann & Joachim Keller, 2008. "Consumption, wealth and business cycles in Germany," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 34(3), pages 451-476, June.
    16. Duca, John V., 2006. "Mutual funds and the evolving long-run effects of stock wealth on U.S. consumption," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 58(3), pages 202-221.
    17. Yang, Zan & Wang, S.T., 2012. "Permanent and transitory shocks in owner-occupied housing: A common trend model of price dynamics," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 336-346.
    18. repec:hal:journl:hal-00712657 is not listed on IDEAS

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