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Episodios de deterioro de la cuenta corriente en Colombia: factores externos, cíclicos y estructurales


  • Jair N. Ojeda-Joya

    (Banco de la República de Colombia)


Se estiman regresiones cointegradas para detectar los principales determinantes de la cuenta corriente en Colombia, en el periodo 1986-2017, a partir de un conjunto de 17 indicadores macroeconómicos externos e internos. El modelo estimado se utiliza para analizar dos episodios de deterioro gradual y persistente del balance externo: 1987-1998 y 2000-2015. Este ejercicio permite estudiar comparativamente ambos periodos considerando sus diferentes coyunturas e institucionalidad de política económica. Los resultados indican que, en ambos episodios, los determinantes cíclicos fueron los que tuvieron una mayor contribución al aumento del déficit. El factor más importante en el primer periodo es el mayor acceso del sector privado al financiamiento externo. En el periodo más reciente, los determinantes más relevantes son el ciclo de crédito bancario y precio real de la vivienda los cuales son indicadores del ciclo financiero. Por su parte, la brecha del producto, como indicador del ciclo económico, tuvo un rol modesto en ambos episodios de deterioro. Cabe destacar que las mejoras de factores estructurales de Colombia desde el año 2000, evitaron un deterioro más pronunciado de la cuenta corriente en 2015. **** ABSTRACT: We estimate cointegrating regressions to detect the main determinants of the current account in Colombia, during the period 1986-2017, starting with a set of 17 external and internal macroeconomic indicators. We use the estimated model to analyze two episodes of gradual and persistent deterioration of the external balance: 1987-1998 and 2000-2015. This exercise allows a comparative study of both periods considering their different macroeconomic outlooks and policy institutions. Our results show that, in both episodes, cyclical determinants have the largest contribution to the increased deficit. The most important factor in the first period is the improved access to international finance by the private sector. In the most recent period, the most relevant determinants are banking credit and real house prices, both of which are financial cycle indicators. On the other hand, the output gap, the business cycle indicator, had a modest role during both deterioration episodes. It is worth highlighting that the improvement of structural factors since 2000, prevented a more pronounced current account deterioration in 2015.

Suggested Citation

  • Jair N. Ojeda-Joya, 2019. "Episodios de deterioro de la cuenta corriente en Colombia: factores externos, cíclicos y estructurales," Borradores de Economia 1061, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdr:borrec:1061
    DOI: 10.32468/be.1061

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    More about this item


    Cuenta Corriente; Colombia; Factores Externos; Balance Fiscal; Ciclo Financiero; Current account; Colombia; External Factors; Fiscal Balance; Financial Cycle.;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • F21 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Investment; Long-Term Capital Movements
    • F32 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Current Account Adjustment; Short-term Capital Movements
    • F41 - International Economics - - Macroeconomic Aspects of International Trade and Finance - - - Open Economy Macroeconomics


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