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The effect of the Uruguay Round on the intensive and extensive margins of trade

Author

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  • Ines Buono

    () (Bank of Italy)

  • Guy Lalanne

    () (INSEE and Crest-LMa)

Abstract

Do tariffs inhibit trade flows by limiting the entry of exporting firms (`extensive margin') or by restricting the average volume exported by each firm (`intensive margin')? Using a gravity equation approach, we analyze how the decrease in tariffs promoted during the 1990s by the Uruguay Round multilateral trade agreement affected the trade margins of French firms across 57 sectors and in 147 countries, from 1993 to 2002. Our main contribution is to estimate the elasticity of trade for both margins, controlling for the unobserved heterogeneity of trade flows thanks to a three-dimensional panel and to time-varying tariffs as a measure of variable trade costs. Our results show that the number of firms exporting in a given sector to a given destination is related to the level of tariffs. But they also show that the decrease in tariffs determined by the implementation of the Uruguay Round did not lead more firms to export and instead, only encouraged incumbent exporters to increase their shipments. We control for two problems that may affect our basic specification: tariff changes may be endogenous and zero flows are not included. Our results are confirmed - even when the extensive margin is significant, its contribution is very small.

Suggested Citation

  • Ines Buono & Guy Lalanne, 2010. "The effect of the Uruguay Round on the intensive and extensive margins of trade," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 743, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  • Handle: RePEc:bdi:wptemi:td_743_10
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    Cited by:

    1. Anne-Célia Disdier & Lionel Fontagné & Mondher Mimouni, 2015. "Tariff Liberalization and Trade Integration of Emerging Countries," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(5), pages 946-971, November.
    2. Fontagné, Lionel & Orefice, Gianluca & Piermartini, Roberta & Rocha, Nadia, 2015. "Product standards and margins of trade: Firm-level evidence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 29-44.
    3. repec:bpj:glecon:v:17:y:2017:i:4:p:11:n:3 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Antoine Berthou & Lionel Fontagné, 2016. "Variable Trade Costs, Composition Effects and the Intensive Margin of Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(1), pages 54-71, January.
    5. Desislava Dikova & Andreja Jaklic & Anze Burger & Aliaz Kuncic, 2014. "Export diversity or focus? What strategy is best for first-time internationalizing SMEs from an emerging market?," Working Papers/Institute for International Business iibp1, Institute for International Business.
    6. Handley, Kyle, 2014. "Exporting under trade policy uncertainty: Theory and evidence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 50-66.
    7. Lionel Fontagné & Gianluca Orefice & Roberta Piermartini & Nadia Rocha, 2015. "Product Standards and Margins of Trade: Firm-Level Evidence Product Standards and Margins of Trade: Firm-Level Evidence," PSE - Labex "OSE-Ouvrir la Science Economique" hal-01299757, HAL.
    8. I. Buono & G. Lalanne, 2010. "The reaction of French firms to the decrase of foreign tariffs," Documents de Travail de la DESE - Working Papers of the DESE g2010-10, Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques, DESE.
    9. KUNO Arata & URATA Shujiro & YOKOTA Kazuhiko, 2016. "Estimating the Impacts of FTA on Foreign Trade: An analysis of extensive and intensive trade margins for the Japan-Mexico FTA," Discussion papers 16003, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    10. Nicita, Alessandro & Rollo, Valentina, 2015. "Market Access Conditions and Sub-Saharan Africa’s Exports Diversification," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 254-263.
    11. Antoine Berthou & Emannuel Dhyne, 2018. "Exchange rate movements,firm-level exports and heterogeneity," Working Paper Research 334, National Bank of Belgium.
    12. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Kimura, Fukunari & Laksanapanyakul, Nuttawut, 2016. "Firm-level trade creation and diversion of regional trade agreements in Thailand," IDE Discussion Papers 621, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
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    14. Nicola Daniele Coniglio & Davide Vurchio & Nicola Cantore & Michele Clara, 2018. "On the evolution of comparative advantage: path-dependent versus path-defying changes," SERIES 01-2018, Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza - Università degli Studi di Bari "Aldo Moro", revised Mar 2018.
    15. Federico Ciliberto & Ina C. Jäkel, 2017. "Exporter Price Premia?," Economics Working Papers 2017-09, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    tariffs; trade margins; Uruguay Round;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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