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The effect of the Uruguay round on the intensive and extensive margins of trade

Author

Listed:
  • Ines Buono

    (Bank of Italy - Bank of Italy)

  • Guy Lalanne

    (PSE - Paris School of Economics, PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - ENS Paris - École normale supérieure - Paris - INRA - Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - ENPC - École des Ponts ParisTech - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, INSEE - Institut National de la Statistique et des Etudes Economiques - INSEE)

Abstract

Do tariffs inhibit trade flows by limiting the entry of exporters (‘firm extensive margin’) or by restricting the average volume exported by each firm (‘firm intensive margin’)? Using a gravity equation approach, we analyze how the decrease in tariffs promoted during the 90s by the Uruguay Round multilateral trade agreement affected the trade margins of French firms for 57 sectors and 147 countries from 1993 to 2002. Our main contribution is to estimate the elasticity of trade on both margins, controlling for the unobserved heterogeneity of trade flows thanks to a three-dimensional panel and to time-varying tariffs as a measure of variable trade costs. Our results show that the number of firms exporting in a given sector to a given destination is related to the level of tariffs. But they also show that the decrease in tariffs induced by the implementation of the Uruguay Round did not lead more firms to export and that it only induced incumbent exporters to increase their shipments. We control for two problems that may affect our basic specification: tariff changes may be endogenous and zero flows are not included. Our results are confirmed — even when the extensive margin is significant, its magnitude is very small.

Suggested Citation

  • Ines Buono & Guy Lalanne, 2012. "The effect of the Uruguay round on the intensive and extensive margins of trade," Post-Print halshs-01510995, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-01510995
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jinteco.2011.11.003
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-01510995
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Anne-Célia Disdier & Lionel Fontagné & Mondher Mimouni, 2015. "Tariff Liberalization and Trade Integration of Emerging Countries," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 23(5), pages 946-971, November.
    2. Fontagné, Lionel & Orefice, Gianluca & Piermartini, Roberta & Rocha, Nadia, 2015. "Product standards and margins of trade: Firm-level evidence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 97(1), pages 29-44.
    3. Ofei, Edmund Okraku, 2017. "Impact of PTA on Trade Margins of LDCs in Sub- Saharan Africa: Evidence from the EBA," MPRA Paper 86976, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Desislava Dikova & Andreja Jaklic & Anze Burger & Aliaz Kuncic, 2014. "Export diversity or focus? What strategy is best for first-time internationalizing SMEs from an emerging market?," Working Papers/Institute for International Business iibp1, Institute for International Business.
    5. Lionel Fontagné & Gianluca Orefice & Roberta Piermartini & Nadia Rocha, 2015. "Product Standards and Margins of Trade: Firm-Level Evidence Product Standards and Margins of Trade: Firm-Level Evidence," PSE - Labex "OSE-Ouvrir la Science Economique" hal-01299757, HAL.
    6. Handley, Kyle, 2014. "Exporting under trade policy uncertainty: Theory and evidence," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(1), pages 50-66.
    7. Cletus C. Coughlin, 2012. "Extensive and intensive trade margins: a state-by-state view," Working Papers 2012-002, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.
    8. Hayakawa, Kazunobu & Kimura, Fukunari & Laksanapanyakul, Nuttawut, 2016. "Firm-level trade creation and diversion of regional trade agreements in Thailand," IDE Discussion Papers 621, Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization(JETRO).
    9. Machado, José A.F. & Santos Silva, J.M.C. & Wei, Kehai, 2016. "Quantiles, corners, and the extensive margin of trade," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 73-84.
    10. Antoine Berthou & Lionel Fontagné, 2016. "Variable Trade Costs, Composition Effects and the Intensive Margin of Trade," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 39(1), pages 54-71, January.
    11. Nicola Daniele Coniglio & Davide Vurchio & Nicola Cantore & Michele Clara, 2018. "On the evolution of comparative advantage: path-dependent versus path-defying changes," SERIES 01-2018, Dipartimento di Economia e Finanza - Università degli Studi di Bari "Aldo Moro", revised Mar 2018.
    12. repec:bpj:glecon:v:17:y:2017:i:4:p:11:n:3 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. KUNO Arata & URATA Shujiro & YOKOTA Kazuhiko, 2016. "Estimating the Impacts of FTA on Foreign Trade: An analysis of extensive and intensive trade margins for the Japan-Mexico FTA," Discussion papers 16003, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
    14. Nicita, Alessandro & Rollo, Valentina, 2015. "Market Access Conditions and Sub-Saharan Africa’s Exports Diversification," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 254-263.
    15. A. Berthou & E. Dhyne, 2018. "Exchange Rate Movements, Firm-Level Exports and Heterogeneity," Working papers 660, Banque de France.
    16. Federico Ciliberto & Ina C. Jäkel, 2017. "Exporter Price Premia?," Economics Working Papers 2017-09, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
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    18. Stefano Bolatto, "undated". "Trade across Countries and Manufacturing Sectors with Heterogeneous Trade Elasticities," Development Working Papers 360, Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano, University of Milano.
    19. Tamminen, Saara & Niemi, Janne & Nilsson Hakkala, Katariina, 2017. "The expected economic impacts of the EU-Canada Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement in Finland," Research Reports 187, VATT Institute for Economic Research.
    20. Avsar Veysel, 2017. "The Anatomy of Trade Deflection," Global Economy Journal, De Gruyter, vol. 17(4), pages 1-11, December.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Tariffs; Trade margins; Uruguay Round;

    JEL classification:

    • F10 - International Economics - - Trade - - - General
    • F13 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Trade Policy; International Trade Organizations
    • F14 - International Economics - - Trade - - - Empirical Studies of Trade

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