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Assessing the Effectiveness of the WFD as a Tool to Address Different Levels of Water Scarcity Based on Two Case Studies of the Mediterranean Region


  • Stella Apostolaki
  • Ebun Akinsete


  • Stella Tsani

    (Athens University of Economics and Business)

  • Phoebe Koundouri
  • Nikitas Pittis

    (University of Piraeus, Greece)

  • Eleftherios Levantis


Despite being a natural phenomenon, water scarcity is, to a great extent, human-induced, particularly affected by climate change and by the increased water resources vulnerability. The Water Framework Directive (WFD), an 'umbrella' directive that aims to provide holistic approaches to the management of water resources and is supported by a number of Communication documents on water scarcity, requires for prompt responses to ensure 'healthy' water bodies of good ecological status. The current paper presents a multidisciplinary approach, developed and engaged within the Globaqua Project, to provide an assessment of the main challenges towards addressing water scarcity with emphasis on the climate change projections, in two Mediterranean regions. The current paper attempts to critically assess the effectiveness of the WFD as a tool to address water scarcity and increase sustainability in resource use. Criticism lies on the fact that the WFD does not directly refer to it, still, water scarcity is recognized as a factor that increases stress on water resources and deteriorates their status. In addition, the Program of Measures (PoMs) within the WFD clearly contribute to reducing vulnerability of water resources and to ensure current and future water use, also under the impact of the projected climate change.

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  • Stella Apostolaki & Ebun Akinsete & Stella Tsani & Phoebe Koundouri & Nikitas Pittis & Eleftherios Levantis, 2019. "Assessing the Effectiveness of the WFD as a Tool to Address Different Levels of Water Scarcity Based on Two Case Studies of the Mediterranean Region," DEOS Working Papers 1909, Athens University of Economics and Business.
  • Handle: RePEc:aue:wpaper:1909

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Phoebe Koundouri & Katia Karousakis & Dionysis Assimacopoulos & Paul Jeffrey & Manfred A. Lange (ed.), 2006. "Water Management in Arid and Semi-Arid Regions," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 3863.
    2. Elame, Fouad & Diukkali, Rachid, 2011. "Water Valuation in Agriculture under climate change (Case of Souss-Massa Basin, Morocco)," 2011 Conference: Impacts of Climate Change on Agriculture, December 6-7, 2011, Rabat, Morocco 188553, Moroccan Association of Agricultural Economics (AMAEco).
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    5. Phoebe Koundouri & Osiel Gonzalez Davila, 2013. "The Use of Ecosystem Services Approach in Guiding Water Valuation and Management: Inland and Coastal Waters," DEOS Working Papers 1334, Athens University of Economics and Business.
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    water scarcity; sustainable resource management; integrated water management; Program of Measures; climate change; multidisciplinary approach;
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