Socio-Economic Determinants Of Health And Physical Fitness In Southern Ethiopia
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the dependence of health and physical fitness indicators on the socio-economic situation of rural families in Southern Ethiopia, with particular emphasis on the role of inequality. The literature shows mixed results about the effect of inequality on health, and this paper contributes in several ways: it compares the results of objective and subjective health measures, it distinguishes between wealth inequality and nutrition inequality, and it evaluates the impact of nutrition inequality both at the village level and at the household level. The subjective health measures are morbidity (the number of days respondents were ill during the last month) and physical fitness (their ability to walk distances, carry heavy loads, and work in the field). The objective health measure is Body Mass Index (BMI). We found that many effects of explanatory variables were significant in some of the equations but not in all of them. In some cases we even obtained contradictory significant effects. This emphasizes the need not to rely on a single health measure. The results indicate that literacy is negatively associated with morbidity. Per-capita wealth is positively associated with BMI. Availability of satisfactory health facilities is associated positively with physical fitness and negatively with morbidity. Per-capita wealth inequality is associated positively with morbidity and negatively with BMI. Within-household nutrition inequality seems to have a complex association with health: the association is negative with BMI and positive with physical fitness, but only for household members whose nutritional status is above the household mean. While these results should be examined more carefully with regard to possible endogeneity of some of the determinants, they do indicate several variables with a positive association with health and physical fitness. These include literacy, wealth and satisfactory health facilities. The role of inequality is less clear, and certainly deserves further analyses at both the theoretical and empirical levels.
|Date of creation:||2002|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environmental Quality Sciences Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100|
Web page: http://departments.agri.huji.ac.il/economics/indexe.html
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Mark R. Rosenzweig & Kenneth I. Wolpin, 1988.
"Heterogeneity, Intrafamily Distribution, and Child Health,"
Journal of Human Resources,
University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 23(4), pages 437-461.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Wolpin, Kenneth I., 1984. "Heterogeneity, Intrafamily Distribution and Child Health," Bulletins 8429, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
- Foster, Andrew D, 1994. "Poverty and Illness in Low-Income Rural Areas," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 84(2), pages 216-220, May.
- John Strauss & Duncan Thomas, 1998. "Health, Nutrition, and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 36(2), pages 766-817, June.
- Strauss, J. & Thomas, D., 1995. "Health, Nutrition and Economic development," Papers 95-23, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
- Stefan Dercon & Pramila Krishnan, 2000. "In Sickness and in Health: Risk Sharing within Households in Rural Ethiopia," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 108(4), pages 688-727, August.
- Pramila Krishnan & Stefan Dercon, 1997. "In sickness and in health ... risk-sharing within households in rural Ethiopia," CSAE Working Paper Series 1997-12, Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford.
- Hentschel, J. & Lanjouw, P., 1996. "Constructing an Indicator of Consumption for the Analysis of Poverty. Principles and Illustrations with Reference to Ecuador," Papers 127, World Bank - Living Standards Measurement.
- Paul Gertler & Jonathan Gruber, 2002. "Insuring Consumption Against Illness," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 51-70, March.
- Paul Gertler & Jonathan Gruber, 1997. "Insuring Consumption Against Illness," NBER Working Papers 6035, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Paul Gertler & Jonathan Gruber, 1998. "Insuring Consumption Against Illness," JCPR Working Papers 41, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
- Thomas, Duncan & Strauss, John, 1992. "Prices, infrastructure, household characteristics and child height," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 301-331, October.
- Thomas, D. & Strauss, J., 1990. "Prices, Infrastructure, Household Charasteristics And Child Height," Papers 602, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Bolin, Kristian & Jacobson, Lena & Lindgren, Bjorn, 2001. "The family as the health producer -- when spouses are Nash-bargainers," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 349-362, May.
- Bouis, Howarth & Haddad, Lawrence & Kennedy, Eileen, 1992. "Does it matter how we survey demand for food?: Evidence from Kenya and the Philippines," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 349-360, October.
- Robert B. Wallace & A. Regula Herzog, 1995. "Overview of the Health Measures in the Health and Retirement Study," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30, pages s84-s107.
- Pitt, Mark M & Rosenzweig, Mark R, 1985. "Health and Nutrient Consumption across and within Farm Households," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(2), pages 212-223, May.
- Behrman, Jere R. & Deolalikar, Anil B., 1988. "Health and nutrition," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 14, pages 631-711 Elsevier.
- T. Jensen, Robert & Richter, Kaspar, 2001. "Understanding the relationship between poverty and children's health," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(4-6), pages 1031-1039, May.
- Alderman, Harold & Garcia, Marito, 1994. "Food Security and Health Security: Explaining the Levels of Nutritional Status in Pakistan," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 42(3), pages 485-507, April.
- James P. Smith, 1999. "Healthy Bodies and Thick Wallets: The Dual Relation between Health and Economic Status," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 13(2), pages 145-166, Spring.
- Pitt, Mark M & Rosenzweig, Mark R & Hassan, Md Nazmul, 1990. "Productivity, Health, and Inequality in the Intrahousehold Distribution of Food in Low-Income Countries," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 80(5), pages 1139-1156, December.
- Pitt, Mark M. & Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Hassan, Md. Nazmul, 1989. "Productivity, Health and Inequality in the Intrahousehold Distribution of Food in Low-Income Countries," Bulletins 7480, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R & Schultz, T Paul, 1983. "Estimating a Household Production Function: Heterogeneity, the Demand for Health Inputs, and Their Effects on Birth Weight," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 91(5), pages 723-746, October.
- Croppenstedt, Andre & Muller, Christophe, 2000. "The Impact of Farmers' Health and Nutritional Status on Their Productivity and Efficiency: Evidence from Ethiopia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 48(3), pages 475-502, April.
- Benjamin Senauer & Marito Garcia & Elizabeth Jacinto, 1988. "Determinants of the Intrahousehold Allocation of Food in the Rural Philippines," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 70(1), pages 170-180. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)