Migration and Agricultural Efficiency - Empirical Evidence for Kosovo
Kosovo, like most of rural Central and Eastern Europe, has witnessed substantial out-migration in recent years, prompting debates on the effect of migration on agricultural efficiency. This paper addresses this issue, drawing on a large (n=2217) and representative sample of agricultural households. A two-stage estimation procedure is followed: a frontier technique to estimate the effect of migration on farm efficiency, followed by a matching estimation approach to robustly estimate the sample average effect on efficiency for different levels of migration intensity. Migration has an efficiency decreasing effect which is amplified for better educated and older workers.
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