IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/f/psi715.html
   My authors  Follow this author

Paulo Pereira da Silva

Personal Details

First Name:Paulo
Middle Name:Pereira da
Last Name:Silva
Suffix:
RePEc Short-ID:psi715
[This author has chosen not to make the email address public]
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Paulo_Silva18

Affiliation

Comissão do Mercado de Valores Mobiliários (CMVM)
Government of Portugal

Lisboa, Portugal
http://www.cmvm.pt/
RePEc:edi:cmvgvpt (more details at EDIRC)

Research output

as
Jump to: Working papers Articles

Working papers

  1. Paulo Silva & Victor Mendes & Margarida Abreu, 2020. "The Disposition Effect Among Mutual Fund Participants: A Re-Examination," Working Papers REM 2020/0126, ISEG - Lisbon School of Economics and Management, REM, Universidade de Lisboa.
  2. Alves, Paulo & Silva, Paulo, 2017. "Abnormal Retained Earnings Around The World," MPRA Paper 80243, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  3. da Silva, Paulo Pereira & Rebelo, Paulo Tomaz & Afonso, Cristina, 2013. "Tail dependence of financial stocks and CDS markets: Evidence using copula methods and simulation-based inference," Economics Discussion Papers 2013-52, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).

Articles

  1. Pereira da Silva, Paulo, 2021. "Do managers pay attention to the market? A review of the relationship between stock price informativeness and investment," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 59(C).
  2. da Silva, Paulo Pereira & Mendes, Victor, 2021. "Exchange-traded certificates, education and the disposition effect," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(C).
  3. Paulo Pereira da Silva and Paulo Horta, 2020. "The Impact of Intermittent Power Generation on the Wholesale Electricity Prices of the MIBEL Iberian Market," Economics of Energy & Environmental Policy, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 2).
  4. da Silva, Paulo Pereira, 2019. "Corporate governance, earnings quality and idiosyncratic crash risk during the 2007–2008 financial crisis," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 61-79.
  5. Paulo Pereira da Silva & Carlos Vieira & Isabel Vieira, 2018. "Central clearing and CDS market quality," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 38(6), pages 731-753, June.
  6. Alves, Carlos & Mendes, Victor & Silva, Paulo Pereira da, 2016. "Analysis of market quality before and during short-selling bans," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 252-268.
  7. Paulo Pereira da Silva, 2016. "Earnings surprises and the response of CDS markets," Studies in Economics and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(3), pages 377-402, August.
  8. Paulo Pereira da Silva, 2016. "Did Investors Seeking Short Exposure Move to the CDS Market after the 2011 Short-Sale Bans in European Financial Stocks?," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 66(4), pages 322-353, August.
  9. Pereira da Silva, Paulo & Vieira, Isabel & Vieira, Carlos, 2015. "M&A operations: Further evidence of informed trading in the CDS market," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 32, pages 116-130.
  10. Paulo Silva, 2015. "The information content of the open interest of credit default swaps," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer;Swiss Society for Financial Market Research, vol. 29(4), pages 381-427, November.
  11. Carlos Alves & Victor Mendes & Paulo Pereira da Silva, 2015. "Do stress tests matter? A study on the impact of the disclosure of stress test results on European financial stocks and CDS markets," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(12), pages 1213-1229, March.
  12. Silva, Paulo Pereira da & Vieira, Carlos & Vieira, Isabel, 2015. "The determinants of CDS open interest dynamics," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 95-109.
  13. da Silva, Paulo Pereira & Rebelo, Paulo Tomaz & Afonso, Cristina, 2014. "Tail dependence of financial stocks and CDS markets: Evidence using copula methods and simulation-based inference," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal (2007-2020), Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel), vol. 8, pages 1-27.
  14. Paulo Pereira Da Silva, 2014. "Sovereign CDS and bond credit spread dynamics in the Euro zone: evidence of an asymmetric price transmission in sovereign debt markets," International Journal of Financial Markets and Derivatives, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(4), pages 293-321.
  15. Paulo Pereira Da Silva, 2014. "Sovereign Credit Risk and Stock Markets–Does the Markets’ Dependency Increase with Financial Distress?," IJFS, MDPI, vol. 2(1), pages 1-23, March.

Citations

Many of the citations below have been collected in an experimental project, CitEc, where a more detailed citation analysis can be found. These are citations from works listed in RePEc that could be analyzed mechanically. So far, only a minority of all works could be analyzed. See under "Corrections" how you can help improve the citation analysis.

Working papers

  1. Alves, Paulo & Silva, Paulo, 2017. "Abnormal Retained Earnings Around The World," MPRA Paper 80243, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    Cited by:

    1. Alves, Paulo, 2018. "Cash holdings around the world: Financial crisis, culture and shareholder rights," MPRA Paper 89861, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2018.

  2. da Silva, Paulo Pereira & Rebelo, Paulo Tomaz & Afonso, Cristina, 2013. "Tail dependence of financial stocks and CDS markets: Evidence using copula methods and simulation-based inference," Economics Discussion Papers 2013-52, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).

    Cited by:

    1. Griffin, Paul A. & Lont, David H., 2018. "Game changer? The impact of the VW emission-cheating scandal on the interrelation between large automakers’ equity and credit markets," Journal of Contemporary Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 14(2), pages 179-196.
    2. Abootaleb Shirvani, 2020. "Stock Returns and Roughness Extreme Variations: A New Model for Monitoring 2008 Market Crash and 2015 Flash Crash," Applied Economics and Finance, Redfame publishing, vol. 7(3), pages 78-95, May.
    3. Shahzad, Syed Jawad Hussain & Mensi, Walid & Hammoudeh, Shawkat & Balcilar, Mehmet & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2018. "Distribution specific dependence and causality between industry-level U.S. credit and stock markets," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 114-133.
    4. Yoshiko Suzuki, 2016. "European banks' funding realignment during the European debt crisis: impact of counterparty risk and funding liquidity on FX swap pricing," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 36(2), pages 696-703.
    5. Abootaleb Shirvani & Dimitri Volchenkov, 2019. "A Regulated Market Under Sanctions: On Tail Dependence Between Oil, Gold, and Tehran Stock Exchange Index," Papers 1911.01826, arXiv.org.
    6. Atil, Ahmed & Bradford, Marc & Elmarzougui, Abdelaziz & Lahiani, Amine, 2016. "Conditional dependence of US and EU sovereign CDS: A time-varying copula-based estimation," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 42-53.
    7. Mudiangombe, Benjamin & Muteba Mwamba, John Weirstrass, 2019. "Dependence Structure of Insurance Credit Default Swaps," MPRA Paper 97335, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Bouri, Elie & de Boyrie, Maria E. & Pavlova, Ivelina, 2017. "Volatility transmission from commodity markets to sovereign CDS spreads in emerging and frontier countries," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 155-165.
    9. Krupskii, Pavel & Joe, Harry, 2020. "Flexible copula models with dynamic dependence and application to financial data," Econometrics and Statistics, Elsevier, vol. 16(C), pages 148-167.
    10. Zhu, Huiming & Huang, Hui & Peng, Cheng & Yang, Yan, 2016. "Extreme dependence between crude oil and stock markets in Asia-Pacific regions: Evidence from quantile regression," Economics Discussion Papers 2016-46, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel).

Articles

  1. Pereira da Silva, Paulo, 2021. "Do managers pay attention to the market? A review of the relationship between stock price informativeness and investment," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 59(C).

    Cited by:

    1. Andreea Curmei-Semenescu & Elena Valentina Ţilică & Cătălin Valeriu Curmei, 2021. "Investors’ Choices and Strategic Financial Decisions of the Companies. Evidence from an Analysis of the Capital Budgeting Policy Implications on Shares Valuation," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(8), pages 1-31, April.

  2. da Silva, Paulo Pereira, 2019. "Corporate governance, earnings quality and idiosyncratic crash risk during the 2007–2008 financial crisis," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 61-79.

    Cited by:

    1. Scheckenbach, Isabel & Wimmer, Maximilian & Dorfleitner, Gregor, 2021. "The higher you fly, the harder you try not to fall: An analysis of the risk taking behavior in social trading," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 82(C), pages 239-259.
    2. Paul Olojede & Olayinka Erin, 2021. "Corporate governance mechanisms and creative accounting practices: the role of accounting regulation," International Journal of Disclosure and Governance, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 18(3), pages 207-222, September.

  3. Paulo Pereira da Silva & Carlos Vieira & Isabel Vieira, 2018. "Central clearing and CDS market quality," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 38(6), pages 731-753, June.

    Cited by:

    1. Berndsen, Ron, 2020. "Five Fundamental Questions on Central Counterparties," Discussion Paper 2020-028, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    2. Akari, Mohamed-Ali & Ben-Abdallah, Ramzi & Breton, Michèle & Dionne, Georges, 2018. "The impact of central clearing on the market for single-name credit default swaps," Working Papers 18-1, HEC Montreal, Canada Research Chair in Risk Management, revised 25 Jan 2019.
    3. Gregor Helmut Schoenemann, 2022. "The man in the middle—liquidity provision under central clearing in the credit default swap market: A regression discontinuity approach," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 42(3), pages 446-471, March.
    4. Marra, Miriam & Yu, Fan & Zhu, Lu, 2019. "The impact of trade reporting and central clearing on CDS price informativeness," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 130-145.
    5. Injun Hwang & Baeho Kim, 2020. "Heterogeneity and netting efficiency under central clearing: A stochastic network analysis," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 40(2), pages 192-208, February.

  4. Alves, Carlos & Mendes, Victor & Silva, Paulo Pereira da, 2016. "Analysis of market quality before and during short-selling bans," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 252-268.

    Cited by:

    1. Previati, Daniele Angelo & Galloppo, Giuseppe & Aliano, Mauro & Paimanova, Viktoria, 2021. "Why do banks react differently to short-selling bans? Evidence from the Asia-Pacific area and the United States," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 80(C), pages 144-158.
    2. Daniel Sales Casula & Rodrigo De-Losso, 2019. "Short Selling, the supply side: are lenders price makers?," Working Papers, Department of Economics 2019_53, University of São Paulo (FEA-USP).
    3. MiloÈ™ Marius Cristian & MiloÈ™ Laura Raisa, 2018. "Short-Selling Regulation and the Development of the Stock Markets," Ovidius University Annals, Economic Sciences Series, Ovidius University of Constantza, Faculty of Economic Sciences, vol. 0(1), pages 470-475, July.
    4. Nathalie Oriol & Iryna Veryzhenko, 2019. "Market structure or traders' behavior? A multi agent model to assess flash crash phenomena and their regulation," Post-Print halshs-01984442, HAL.
    5. Paulo Pereira da Silva, 2016. "Did Investors Seeking Short Exposure Move to the CDS Market after the 2011 Short-Sale Bans in European Financial Stocks?," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 66(4), pages 322-353, August.
    6. Ge-zhi Wu & Da-ming You, 2021. "Margin trading, short selling and corporate green innovation," Papers 2107.11255, arXiv.org, revised Aug 2021.
    7. Kwaku Boafo Baidoo, 2019. "The Effects of Short Selling on Financial Markets Volatilities," European Journal of Business Science and Technology, Mendel University in Brno, Faculty of Business and Economics, vol. 5(2), pages 218-228.

  5. Paulo Pereira da Silva, 2016. "Earnings surprises and the response of CDS markets," Studies in Economics and Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(3), pages 377-402, August.

    Cited by:

    1. Andres, Christian & Betzer, André & Doumet, Markus, 2021. "Measuring changes in credit risk: The case of CDS event studies," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 49(C).
    2. Raude John O. Messo & John Byaruhanga, 2021. "Earnings Announcement and the Performance of Security Prices of Companies Listed on the Nairobi Securities Exchange, Kenya," International Journal of Business and Management, Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol. 14(9), pages 188-188, July.

  6. Paulo Pereira da Silva, 2016. "Did Investors Seeking Short Exposure Move to the CDS Market after the 2011 Short-Sale Bans in European Financial Stocks?," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 66(4), pages 322-353, August.

    Cited by:

    1. Ahmet Kahiloğulları, 2018. "Relationship between credit default swaps, direct foreign investments and Portfolio investments: Time Series Analysis for Turkey," Prizren Social Science Journal, SHIKS, vol. 2(3), pages 50-62, December.

  7. Pereira da Silva, Paulo & Vieira, Isabel & Vieira, Carlos, 2015. "M&A operations: Further evidence of informed trading in the CDS market," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 32, pages 116-130.

    Cited by:

    1. Chen, Zhongfei & Wanke, Peter & Tsionas, Mike G., 2018. "Assessing the strategic fit of potential M&As in Chinese banking: A novel Bayesian stochastic frontier approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 254-263.
    2. Renneboog, Luc & Szilagyi, Peter & Vansteenkiste, Cara, 2017. "Creditor Rights, Claims Enforcement, and Bond Performance in Mergers and Acquisitions," Other publications TiSEM e3b3753d-87d4-46d6-be12-3, Tilburg University, School of Economics and Management.
    3. Wanke, Peter & Maredza, Andrew & Gupta, Rangan, 2017. "Merger and acquisitions in South African banking: A network DEA model," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 41(C), pages 362-376.
    4. Saker Sabkha & Christian Peretti & Dorra Hmaied, 2019. "On the informational market efficiency of the worldwide sovereign credit default swaps," Journal of Asset Management, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 20(7), pages 581-608, December.
    5. Goodness C. Aye & Giray Gozgor & Rangan Gupta, 2018. "Dynamic and Asymmetric Response of Inequality to Income Volatility: The Case of the United Kingdom," Working Papers 201821, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.
    6. Benjamin Hippert, 2019. "The relationship between announcements of complete mergers and acquisitions and acquirers' abnormal CDS spread changes," Working Papers Dissertations 52, Paderborn University, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics.

  8. Paulo Silva, 2015. "The information content of the open interest of credit default swaps," Financial Markets and Portfolio Management, Springer;Swiss Society for Financial Market Research, vol. 29(4), pages 381-427, November.

    Cited by:

    1. Akari, Mohamed-Ali & Ben-Abdallah, Ramzi & Breton, Michèle & Dionne, Georges, 2018. "The impact of central clearing on the market for single-name credit default swaps," Working Papers 18-1, HEC Montreal, Canada Research Chair in Risk Management, revised 25 Jan 2019.
    2. Paulo Pereira da Silva, 2016. "Did Investors Seeking Short Exposure Move to the CDS Market after the 2011 Short-Sale Bans in European Financial Stocks?," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 66(4), pages 322-353, August.

  9. Carlos Alves & Victor Mendes & Paulo Pereira da Silva, 2015. "Do stress tests matter? A study on the impact of the disclosure of stress test results on European financial stocks and CDS markets," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(12), pages 1213-1229, March.

    Cited by:

    1. Maria Rosa Borges & José Zorro Mendes & André Pereira, 2019. "The Value of Information: The Impact of European Union Bank Stress Tests on Stock Markets," International Advances in Economic Research, Springer;International Atlantic Economic Society, vol. 25(4), pages 429-444, November.
    2. Lukas Ahnert & Pascal Vogt & Volker Vonhoff & Florian Weigert, 2018. "The Impact of Regulatory Stress Testing on Bank's Equity and CDS Performance," Working Papers on Finance 1814, University of St. Gallen, School of Finance.
    3. Lukas Ahnert & Pascal Vogt & Volker Vonhoff & Florian Weigert, 2020. "Regulatory stress testing and bank performance," European Financial Management, European Financial Management Association, vol. 26(5), pages 1449-1488, November.
    4. Corbet, Shaen & Larkin, Charles, 2017. "Has the uniformity of banking regulation within the European Union restricted rather than encouraged sectoral development?," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 48-65.
    5. Nadine Gatzert & Dinah Heidinger, 2020. "An Empirical Analysis of Market Reactions to the First Solvency and Financial Condition Reports in the European Insurance Industry," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 87(2), pages 407-436, June.
    6. Ahnert, Lukas & Vogt, Pascal & Vonhoff, Volker & Weigert, Florian, 2020. "Regulatory stress testing and bank performance," CFR Working Papers 20-03, University of Cologne, Centre for Financial Research (CFR).
    7. Konietschke, Paul & Ongena, Steven & Ponte Marques, Aurea, 2022. "Stress tests and capital requirement disclosures: do they impact banks’ lending and risk-taking decisions?," Working Paper Series 2679, European Central Bank.
    8. Amavi S. S. Agbodji & Emmanuelle Nys & Alain Sauviat, 2021. "Do CDS Maturities Matter in the Evaluation of the Information Content of Regulatory Banking Stress Tests? Evidence from European and US Stress Tests," Revue économique, Presses de Sciences-Po, vol. 72(1), pages 65-102.
    9. Stefano Miani & Josanco Floreani & Andrea Paltrinieri, 2018. "Do Capital Adequacy and Credit Quality Affect Systematic Risk? Investigation of a Sample of European Listed Banks in Light of EBA Stress Tests," Quarterly Journal of Finance (QJF), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 8(04), pages 1-31, December.

  10. Silva, Paulo Pereira da & Vieira, Carlos & Vieira, Isabel, 2015. "The determinants of CDS open interest dynamics," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 21(C), pages 95-109.

    Cited by:

    1. Kanagaretnam, Kiridaran & Zhang, Gaiyan & Zhang, Sanjian Bill, 2016. "CDS pricing and accounting disclosures: Evidence from U.S. bank holding corporations around the recent financial crisis," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 22(C), pages 33-44.
    2. Benbouzid, Nadia & Mallick, Sushanta K. & Sousa, Ricardo M., 2017. "An international forensic perspective of the determinants of bank CDS spreads," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 60-70.
    3. Benjamin Hippert & André Uhde & Sascha Tobias Wengerek, 2019. "Determinants of CDS trading on major banks," Working Papers Dissertations 51, Paderborn University, Faculty of Business Administration and Economics.
    4. Paulo Pereira da Silva, 2016. "Did Investors Seeking Short Exposure Move to the CDS Market after the 2011 Short-Sale Bans in European Financial Stocks?," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 66(4), pages 322-353, August.
    5. Paniagua, Jordi & Sapena, Juan & Tamarit, Cecilio, 2017. "Sovereign debt spreads in EMU: The time-varying role of fundamentals and market distrust," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 187-206.

  11. da Silva, Paulo Pereira & Rebelo, Paulo Tomaz & Afonso, Cristina, 2014. "Tail dependence of financial stocks and CDS markets: Evidence using copula methods and simulation-based inference," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal (2007-2020), Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW Kiel), vol. 8, pages 1-27.
    See citations under working paper version above.
  12. Paulo Pereira Da Silva, 2014. "Sovereign CDS and bond credit spread dynamics in the Euro zone: evidence of an asymmetric price transmission in sovereign debt markets," International Journal of Financial Markets and Derivatives, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 3(4), pages 293-321.

    Cited by:

    1. Gomes, Pedro & Kurter, Zeynep O. & Morita, Rubens, 2022. "European Sovereign Bond and Stock Market Granger Causality Dynamics," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 1405, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.

  13. Paulo Pereira Da Silva, 2014. "Sovereign Credit Risk and Stock Markets–Does the Markets’ Dependency Increase with Financial Distress?," IJFS, MDPI, vol. 2(1), pages 1-23, March.

    Cited by:

    1. Kliber Agata, 2016. "Impact Of The Ban On Uncovered SCDS Trade On the Interdependencies Between The CDS Market And Other Sectors Of Financial Markets. The Case Of Safe And Developed Versus Risky And Developing European Ma," Comparative Economic Research, Sciendo, vol. 19(1), pages 77-99, March.
    2. Ibhagui, Oyakhilome, 2021. "How do sovereign risk, equity and foreign exchange derivatives markets interact?," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 58-78.
    3. Nader Naifar, 2020. "What Explains the Sovereign Credit Default Swap Spreads Changes in the GCC Region?," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 13(10), pages 1-22, October.

More information

Research fields, statistics, top rankings, if available.

Statistics

Access and download statistics for all items

Co-authorship network on CollEc

NEP Fields

NEP is an announcement service for new working papers, with a weekly report in each of many fields. This author has had 2 papers announced in NEP. These are the fields, ordered by number of announcements, along with their dates. If the author is listed in the directory of specialists for this field, a link is also provided.
  1. NEP-BEC: Business Economics (1) 2017-07-23
  2. NEP-CFN: Corporate Finance (1) 2017-07-23
  3. NEP-FLE: Financial Literacy & Education (1) 2020-05-11
  4. NEP-GEN: Gender (1) 2020-05-11

Corrections

All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. For general information on how to correct material on RePEc, see these instructions.

To update listings or check citations waiting for approval, Paulo Pereira da Silva should log into the RePEc Author Service.

To make corrections to the bibliographic information of a particular item, find the technical contact on the abstract page of that item. There, details are also given on how to add or correct references and citations.

To link different versions of the same work, where versions have a different title, use this form. Note that if the versions have a very similar title and are in the author's profile, the links will usually be created automatically.

Please note that most corrections can take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.