Development Finance Institutions : Measuring Their Subsidy
The term "development finance institutions" (DFI) encompasses no only government development banks, but also nongovernmental micro-finance organizations, that match grants to attempt to promote community development, decentralization of power, and local empowerment. Measures of the social cost of DFIs that receive public funds, help to check whether DFIs are good uses of public funds, i.e., if the social benefit of a DFI exceeds the social cost, then public funds are indeed well-spent, further improving social welfare. This report describes the measurement of costs but not of benefits; but even without knowledge of benefits, knowledge of costs can help to adequately spend funds. Two measures of social cost are presented: first, the Subsidy Dependence Index (SDI) - the ratio of subsidy received to revenue from loans; and, subsidy is the social cost of the public funds used to run a DFI - which does not discount flows, rather it works in short time frames, or when the rate of time preference is low; second, the Net Present Cost to Society (NPCs) - like standard present-value measures, it discounts cash flows, and works in any time frame. Both SDI and NPCs are tools, to help establish benchmarks, chart trends, and compare a DFI with identical clients, and services. It is stipulated that measurement of the social cost of public DFIs matters because funds earmarked for development are scarce, while subsidies for DFIs could be adequate, provided social welfare improves in a broader scale.
|This book is provided by The World Bank in its series World Bank Publications with number 13983 and published in 2001-10.|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 1818 H Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20433|
Phone: (202) 477-1234
Web page: https://openknowledge.worldbank.org
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Khandker, S.R. & Khalily, B. & Khan, Z., 1995. "Grameen Bank: Performance and Sustainability," World Bank - Discussion Papers 306, World Bank.
- Goldschmidt, Yaaqov & Yaron, Jacob, 1991. "Inflation adjustments of financial statements : application of international accounting standard 29 : financial reporting in hyperinflationary economies," Policy Research Working Paper Series 670, The World Bank.
- Gonzalez-Vega, Claudio & Schreiner, Mark & Meyer, Richard L. & Rodriguez-Meza, Jorge & Navajas, Sergio, 1996. "Bancosol: The Challenge Of Growth For Microfinance Organizations," Economics and Sociology Occasional Papers 28333, Ohio State University, Department of Agricultural, Environmental and Development Economics.
- Jerry R. Ladman & Ronald L. Tinnermeier, 1981. "The Political Economy of Agricultural Credit: The Case of Bolivi," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 63(1), pages 66-72.
- Hossain, Mahabub, 1988. "Credit for alleviation of rural poverty: the Grameen Bank in Bangladesh," Research reports 65, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Bolnick, Bruce R., 1988. "Evaluating loan collection performance: An Indonesian example," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 501-510, April.
- J. D. Von Pischke & Dale W Adams, 1980. "Fungibility and the Design and Evaluation of Agricultural Credit Projects," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 62(4), pages 719-726.
- Amin, Sajeda & Rai, Ashok S. & Topa, Giorgio, 2003.
"Does microcredit reach the poor and vulnerable? Evidence from northern Bangladesh,"
Journal of Development Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 59-82, February.
- Sajeda Amin & Ashok S. Rai & Giorgio Topa, 1999. "Does Microcredit Reach the Poor and Vulnerable? Evidence from Northern Bangladesh," CID Working Papers 28, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
- Sajeda Amin & Ashok S. Rai & Giorgio Topa, 2001. "Does Microcredit Reach the Poor and Vulnerable? Evidence from Northern Bangladesh," CID Working Papers 28A, Center for International Development at Harvard University.
- Amin, S. & Rai, A.S. & Topa, G., 2000. "Does Microcredit Reach the Poor and Vulnerable? Evidence from Nothern Bangladesh," Papers 28, Chicago - Graduate School of Business.
- Amin, S. & Rai, A.S. & Topa, G., 1999. "Does Microcredit Reach the Poor and Vulnerable? Evidence from Northern Bangldesh," Working Papers 99-06, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
- Besley, Timothy, 1994. "How Do Market Failures Justify Interventions in Rural Credit Markets?," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 9(1), pages 27-47, January.
- Besley, T., 1992. "How Do Market Failures Justify Interventions in Rural Credit Markets?," Papers 162, Princeton, Woodrow Wilson School - Development Studies.
- Lipton, Michael & Ravallion, Martin, 1995. "Poverty and policy," Handbook of Development Economics,in: Hollis Chenery & T.N. Srinivasan (ed.), Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 3, chapter 41, pages 2551-2657 Elsevier.
- Lipton, Michael & Ravallion, Martin, 1993. "Poverty and policy," Policy Research Working Paper Series 1130, The World Bank.
- Adams, Dale W & Von Pischke, J. D., 1992. "Microenterprise credit programs: Deja vu," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 20(10), pages 1463-1470, October.
- repec:pri:rpdevs:morduch_microfinance_poor is not listed on IDEAS
- Coleman, Brett E., 1999. "The impact of group lending in Northeast Thailand," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 105-141, October.
- Robert Moffitt, 1991. "Program Evaluation With Nonexperimental Data," Evaluation Review, , vol. 15(3), pages 291-314, June.
- Jonathan Morduch, 1998. "Does Microfinance Really Help the Poor? New Evidence from Flagship Programs in Bangladesh," Working Papers 198, Princeton University, Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs, Research Program in Development Studies..
- Singh, Inderjit & Squire, Lyn & Strauss, John, 1986. "A Survey of Agricultural Household Models: Recent Findings and Policy Implications," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 1(1), pages 149-179, September.
- Buckley, Graeme, 1997. "Microfinance in Africa: Is it either the problem or the solution?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(7), pages 1081-1093, July.
- James J. Heckman & Jeffrey A. Smith, 1995. "Assessing the Case for Social Experiments," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(2), pages 85-110, Spring.
- Ballard, Charles L & Shoven, John B & Whalley, John, 1985. "General Equilibrium Computations of the Marginal Welfare Costs of Taxes in the United States," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(1), pages 128-138, March.
- Carter, Michael R., 1989. "The impact of credit on peasant productivity and differentiation in Nicaragua," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 13-36, July.
- Chaves, Rodrigo A. & Gonzalez-Vega, Claudio, 1996. "The design of successful rural financial intermediaries: Evidence from Indonesia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 65-78, January.
- Markandya, Anil & Pearce, David W, 1991. "Development, the Environment, and the Social Rate of Discount," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 6(2), pages 137-152, July.
- Devarajan, Shantayanan & Squire, Lyn & Suthiwart-Narueput, Sethaput, 1997. "Beyond Rate of Return: Reorienting Project Appraisal," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 12(1), pages 35-46, February.
- Mosley, Paul & Hulme, David, 1998. "Microenterprise finance: Is there a conflict between growth and poverty alleviation?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 783-790, May.
- Garber, Alan M. & Phelps, Charles E., 1997. "Economic foundations of cost-effectiveness analysis," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 1-31, February.
- Mark M. Pitt & Shahidur R. Khandker, 1998. "The Impact of Group-Based Credit Programs on Poor Households in Bangladesh: Does the Gender of Participants Matter?," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(5), pages 958-996, October.
- Yaron, J., 1992. "Successful Rural Finance Institutions," World Bank - Discussion Papers 150, World Bank. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbpubs:13983. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Breineder)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.