IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/wly/hlthec/v19y2010i4p377-395.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Supplemental health insurance and equality of access in Belgium

Author

Listed:
  • Erik Schokkaert
  • Tom Van Ourti
  • Diana De Graeve

    (Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium)

  • Ann Lecluyse

    (Faculty of Applied Economics, University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium)

  • Carine Van de Voorde

    (Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre, Brussels, Belgium)

Abstract

The effects of supplemental health insurance on health-care consumption crucially depend on specific institutional features of the health-care system. We analyse the situation in Belgium, a country with a very broad coverage in compulsory social health insurance and where supplemental insurance mainly refers to extra-billing in hospitals. Within this institutional background, we find only weak evidence of adverse selection in the coverage of supplemental health insurance. We find much stronger effects of socio-economic background. We estimate a bivariate probit model and cannot reject the assumption of exogeneity of insurance availability for the explanation of health-care use. A count model for hospital care shows that supplemental insurance has no significant effect on the number of spells, but a negative effect on the number of nights per spell. We comment on the implications of our findings for equality of access to health care in Belgium. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Suggested Citation

  • Erik Schokkaert & Tom Van Ourti & Diana De Graeve & Ann Lecluyse & Carine Van de Voorde, 2010. "Supplemental health insurance and equality of access in Belgium," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(4), pages 377-395.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:hlthec:v:19:y:2010:i:4:p:377-395
    DOI: 10.1002/hec.1478
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1002/hec.1478
    File Function: Link to full text; subscription required
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Martin Schellhorn, 2001. "The effect of variable health insurance deductibles on the demand for physician visits," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(5), pages 441-456.
    2. Ángel Marcos Vera-Hernández, 1999. "Duplicate coverage and demand for health care. The case of Catalonia," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 8(7), pages 579-598.
    3. Rainer Winkelmann, 2004. "Health care reform and the number of doctor visits-an econometric analysis," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(4), pages 455-472.
    4. Amir Shmueli, 2001. "The effect of health on acute care supplemental insurance ownership: an empirical analysis," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(4), pages 341-350.
    5. Deb, Partha & Trivedi, Pravin K., 2002. "The structure of demand for health care: latent class versus two-part models," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 601-625, July.
    6. Holly, Alberto & Gardiol, Lucien & Domenighetti, Gianfranco & Brigitte Bisig, 1998. "An econometric model of health care utilization and health insurance in Switzerland," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 42(3-5), pages 513-522, May.
    7. Erik Schokkaert & Carine Van de Voorde, 2005. "Health care reform in Belgium," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(S1), pages 25-39.
    8. Eddy van Doorslaer & Cristina Masseria, 2004. "Income-Related Inequality in the Use of Medical Care in 21 OECD Countries," OECD Health Working Papers 14, OECD Publishing.
    9. Deb, Partha & Trivedi, Pravin K, 1997. "Demand for Medical Care by the Elderly: A Finite Mixture Approach," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(3), pages 313-336, May-June.
    10. Thomas C. Buchmueller & Agnès Couffinhal & Michel Grignon & Marc Perronnin, 2004. "Access to physician services: does supplemental insurance matter? Evidence from France," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(7), pages 669-687.
    11. Partha Deb & Ann M. Holmes, 2000. "Estimates of use and costs of behavioural health care: a comparison of standard and finite mixture models," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 9(6), pages 475-489.
    12. Santos Silva, Joao M. C. & Windmeijer, Frank, 2001. "Two-part multiple spell models for health care demand," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 104(1), pages 67-89, August.
    13. Tom Van Ourti, 2004. "Measuring horizontal inequity in Belgian health care using a Gaussian random effects two part count data model," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(7), pages 705-724.
    14. Martin Schellhorn & Andreas E. Stuck & Christoph E. Minder & John C. Beck, 2000. "Health services utilization of elderly Swiss: evidence from panel data," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 9(6), pages 533-545.
    15. Ulf- G. Gerdtham, 1997. "Equity in Health Care Utilization: Further Tests Based on Hurdle Models and Swedish Micro Data," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 6(3), pages 303-319.
    16. Gardiol, Lucien & Geoffard, Pierre-Yves & Grandchamp, Chantal, 2005. "Separating Selection and Incentive Effects in Health Insurance," CEPR Discussion Papers 5380, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    17. Marisol Rodríguez & Alexandrina Stoyanova, 2004. "The effect of private insurance access on the choice of GP|specialist and public|private provider in Spain," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(7), pages 689-703.
    18. Andreas Million & Regina T. Riphahn & Achim Wambach, 2003. "Incentive effects in the demand for health care: a bivariate panel count data estimation," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 18(4), pages 387-405.
    19. Eddy van Doorslaer & Xander Koolman & Andrew M. Jones, 2004. "Explaining income-related inequalities in doctor utilisation in Europe," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(7), pages 629-647.
    20. Gurmu, Shiferaw, 1997. "Semi-Parametric Estimation of Hurdle Regression Models with an Application to Medicaid Utilization," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(3), pages 225-243, May-June.
    21. Teresa Bago d'Uva, 2006. "Latent class models for utilisation of health care," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 15(4), pages 329-343.
    22. Wilde, Joachim, 2000. "Identification of multiple equation probit models with endogenous dummy regressors," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 309-312, December.
    23. Sergi Jiménez-Martín & José M. Labeaga & Maite Martínez-Granado, 2002. "Latent class versus two-part models in the demand for physician services across the European Union," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(4), pages 301-321.
    24. Winfried Pohlmeier & Volker Ulrich, 1995. "An Econometric Model of the Two-Part Decisionmaking Process in the Demand for Health Care," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 30(2), pages 339-361.
    25. Ulf-G. Gerdtham & Pravin K. Trivedi, 2001. "Equity in Swedish health care reconsidered: new results based on the finite mixture model," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(6), pages 565-572.
    26. Colm Harmon & Brian Nolan, 2001. "Health insurance and health services utilization in Ireland," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(2), pages 135-145.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Izabela Jelovac, 2015. "Physicians’ balance billing, supplemental insurance and access to health care," International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 269-280, June.
    2. Astrid Kiil, 2012. "Does employment-based private health insurance increase the use of covered health care services? A matching estimator approach," International Journal of Health Economics and Management, Springer, vol. 12(1), pages 1-38, March.
    3. Kiil, Astrid, 2012. "What characterises the privately insured in universal health care systems? A review of the empirical evidence," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 106(1), pages 60-75.
    4. Renate Lange & Jörg Schiller & Petra Steinorth, 2015. "Demand and Selection Effects in Supplemental Health Insurance in Germany," SOEPpapers on Multidisciplinary Panel Data Research 757, DIW Berlin, The German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP).
    5. Renate Lange & Jörg Schiller & Petra Steinorth, 2017. "Demand and Selection Effects in Supplemental Health Insurance in Germany," The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance - Issues and Practice, Palgrave Macmillan;The Geneva Association, vol. 42(1), pages 5-30, January.
    6. Carine Franc & Marc Perronnin & Aurelie Pierre, 2014. "Supplemental Health Insurance and Healthcare Consumption: A Dynamic Approach to Moral Hazard," Working Papers DT58, IRDES institut for research and information in health economics, revised Jan 2014.
    7. Omar Paccagnella & Vincenzo Rebba & Guglielmo Weber, 2013. "VOLUNTARY PRIVATE HEALTH INSURANCE AMONG THE OVER 50s IN EUROPE," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(3), pages 289-315, March.
    8. repec:kap:ijhcfe:v:17:y:2017:i:1:d:10.1007_s10754-016-9195-3 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Raf Van Gastel & Tim Goedemé & Julie Janssens & Eva Lefevere & Rik Lemkens, 2017. "A Reminder to Pay Less for Healthcare: take-up of Increased Reimbursement in a large-scale randomized field experiment," Working Papers 1712, Herman Deleeck Centre for Social Policy, University of Antwerp.
    10. Léa Toulemon, 2016. "Job quality, Health Insurance and the Price of Medical Products: Essays in Applied Economics," Sciences Po publications info:hdl:2441/3018m4nhj18, Sciences Po.
    11. Perronnin, Marc, 2013. "Effet de l'assurance complémentaire santé sur les consommations médicales, entre risque moral et amélioration de l'accès aux soins," Economics Thesis from University Paris Dauphine, Paris Dauphine University, number 123456789/13659 edited by Wittwer, Jérôme, December.
    12. Sofia Vaz & Pedro Ramos, 2016. "Where did civil servants go? the effect of an increase in public co-payments on double insured patients," Health Economics Review, Springer, vol. 6(1), pages 1-8, December.
    13. Buchmueller, Thomas C. & Fiebig, Denzil G. & Jones, Glenn & Savage, Elizabeth, 2013. "Preference heterogeneity and selection in private health insurance: The case of Australia," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 757-767.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wly:hlthec:v:19:y:2010:i:4:p:377-395. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Wiley-Blackwell Digital Licensing) or (Christopher F. Baum). General contact details of provider: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/jhome/5749 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.