The Effects of Education and Family Planning Programs on Fertility in Indonesia
Numerous studies indicate that female education is a major determinant of fertility and that the estimated effects are large relative to other variables, including family planning program variables. There are, however, two serious deficiencies in the research relating educational attainment to fertility that could give rise to invalid inferences. First, many public programs, including health and family planning programs, may influence a woman's decisions about education, and these indirect programmatic effects might be large. Second, nearly all existing studies of the impacts of education on fertility assume that a woman's educational attainment is exogenous. Education could be serving as a proxy for such unobservable determinants as ability, motivation, and parental background, as these factors most likely are important determinants of a woman's educational attainment. We use the 1993 Indonesian Family Life Survey to compare the estimated impacts of education on fertility from a simple model that assumes the exogeneity of education and an unobserved factor model that allows for endogeneity of schooling. The model imposing questionable exogeneity assumptions appears to overpredict the fertility-reducing effects of female education, better schools, and higher government health expenditures and to underpredict the importance of family planning programs for reducing fertility and for inducing young women to remain in school.
Volume (Year): 54 (2005)
Issue (Month): 1 (October)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/EDCC/|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Wolpin, Kenneth I., 1988.
"Migration selectivity and the effects of public programs,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 265-289, December.
- Rosenzweig, Mark R. & Wolpin, Kenneth I., 1984. "Migration Selectivity and the Effects of Public Programs," Bulletins 8442, University of Minnesota, Economic Development Center.
- Heckman, James & Singer, Burton, 1984. "A Method for Minimizing the Impact of Distributional Assumptions in Econometric Models for Duration Data," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 52(2), pages 271-320, March.
- Esther Duflo, 2001. "Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia: Evidence from an Unusual Policy Experiment," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(4), pages 795-813, September.
- Esther Duflo, 2000. "Schooling and Labor Market Consequences of School Construction in Indonesia: Evidence from an Unusual Policy Experiment," NBER Working Papers 7860, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jere R. Behrman & Mark R. Rosenzweig, 2002. "Does Increasing Women's Schooling Raise the Schooling of the Next Generation?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(1), pages 323-334, March.
- Paul Gertler & John Molyneaux, 1994. "How economic development and family planning programs combined to reduce indonesian fertility," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 31(1), pages 33-63, February.
- Gertler, P.J. & Molyneaux, J.W., 1993. "How Economic Development and Family Planning Programs Combined to Reduce Indonesian Fertility," Papers 93-08, RAND - Labor and Population Program.
- Alok Bhargava, 2006. "Identification and Panel Data Models with Endogenous Regressors," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Econometrics, Statistics And Computational Approaches In Food And Health Sciences, chapter 3, pages 49-60 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
- Alok Bhargava, 1991. "Identification and Panel Data Models with Endogenous Regressors," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(1), pages 129-140.
- Pitt, Mark M & Rosenzweig, Mark R & Gibbons, Donna M, 1993. "The Determinants and Consequences of the Placement of Government Programs in Indonesia," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 7(3), pages 319-348, September. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)