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The Effects of Education and Family Planning Programs on Fertility in Indonesia

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  • Angeles, Gustavo
  • Guilkey, David K
  • Mroz, Thomas A

Abstract

Numerous studies indicate that female education is a major determinant of fertility and that the estimated effects are large relative to other variables, including family planning program variables. There are, however, two serious deficiencies in the research relating educational attainment to fertility that could give rise to invalid inferences. First, many public programs, including health and family planning programs, may influence a woman's decisions about education, and these indirect programmatic effects might be large. Second, nearly all existing studies of the impacts of education on fertility assume that a woman's educational attainment is exogenous. Education could be serving as a proxy for such unobservable determinants as ability, motivation, and parental background, as these factors most likely are important determinants of a woman's educational attainment. We use the 1993 Indonesian Family Life Survey to compare the estimated impacts of education on fertility from a simple model that assumes the exogeneity of education and an unobserved factor model that allows for endogeneity of schooling. The model imposing questionable exogeneity assumptions appears to overpredict the fertility-reducing effects of female education, better schools, and higher government health expenditures and to underpredict the importance of family planning programs for reducing fertility and for inducing young women to remain in school.

Suggested Citation

  • Angeles, Gustavo & Guilkey, David K & Mroz, Thomas A, 2005. "The Effects of Education and Family Planning Programs on Fertility in Indonesia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(1), pages 165-201, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:ucp:ecdecc:y:2005:v:54:i:1:p:165-201
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    File URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1086/431261
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    5. Paul Gertler & John Molyneaux, 1994. "How economic development and family planning programs combined to reduce indonesian fertility," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 31(1), pages 33-63, February.
    6. Alok Bhargava, 2006. "Identification and Panel Data Models with Endogenous Regressors," World Scientific Book Chapters,in: Econometrics, Statistics And Computational Approaches In Food And Health Sciences, chapter 3, pages 49-60 World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd..
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    Cited by:

    1. Audrey Light & Yoshiaki Omori, 2013. "Determinants of Long-Term Unions: Who Survives the “Seven Year Itch”?," Population Research and Policy Review, Springer;Southern Demographic Association (SDA), vol. 32(6), pages 851-891, December.
    2. repec:eee:ehbiol:v:28:y:2018:i:c:p:67-78 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Audrey Light & Yoshiaki Omori, 2012. "Can Long-Term Cohabiting and Marital Unions be Incentivized?," Working Papers 12-01, Ohio State University, Department of Economics.
    4. Djavad Salehi‐Isfahani & M. Jalal Abbasi‐Shavazi & Meimanat Hosseini‐Chavoshi, 2010. "Family planning and fertility decline in rural Iran: the impact of rural health clinics," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(S1), pages 159-180, September.
    5. repec:taf:rjapxx:v:14:y:2009:i:1:p:90-104 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Jaikishan Desai & Alessandro Tarozzi, 2011. "Microcredit, Family Planning Programs, and Contraceptive Behavior: Evidence From a Field Experiment in Ethiopia," Demography, Springer;Population Association of America (PAA), vol. 48(2), pages 749-782, May.
    7. Chaudhuri, Sanjukta, 2010. "Women's Empowerment in South Asia and Southeast Asia: A Comparative Analysis," MPRA Paper 19686, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    8. Mats Lundahl & Fredrik Sjöholm, 2009. "Population growth and job creation in Timor-Leste," Journal of the Asia Pacific Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(1), pages 90-104.
    9. Luca Zanin & Rosalba Radice & Giampiero Marra, 2015. "Modelling the impact of women’s education on fertility in Malawi," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 28(1), pages 89-111, January.
    10. Duvendack, Maren & Palmer-Jones, Richard, 2011. "The microfinance of reproduction and the reproduction of microfinance: understanding the connections between microfinance, empowerment, contraception and fertility in Bangladesh in the 1990s," MPRA Paper 32384, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. World Bank, 2007. "Ethiopia - Capturing the Demographic Bonus in Ethiopia : Gender, Development, and Demographic Actions," World Bank Other Operational Studies 7823, The World Bank.

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