Women's Empowerment in South Asia and Southeast Asia: A Comparative Analysis
This paper uses multivariate regression analysis to explore the time and birth cohort trends of women’s empowerment in eight countries of South Asia and South East Asia. The measures of women’s empowerment are: economic participation, educational attainment, wage work, fertility, female to male sex ratio of living children, and the ideal female to male sex ratio. The data (1990s and 2000s) are from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS.) Comparison of estimated cohort lines demonstrate that Philippines and Vietnam, both in South East Asia, have the highest education level, highest rates of economic participation, and the lowest fertility rates. Cambodia has the highest female to male ratio. Pakistan and Nepal have lowest education; Pakistan and Bangladesh have the lowest economic participation rates and highest fertility rates; India has the lowest sex ratio. In surveying country specific literature to confirm these estimates, I conclude (1) social and religious norms hinder women’s empowerment in both regions. (2) Progress in women’s empowerment has been achieved through feminist movements (the Philippines), government programs (the Doi Moi program of Vietnam) and Non Government Organization efforts (Grameen Bank of Bangladesh) (3) Much of the progress has been achieved with meager access to resources. (4) More empowerment could be the consequence of political turmoil, (Cambodia) and not necessarily economic development or cultural shifts.
|Date of creation:||01 Jan 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Karin Astrid Siegmann, 2006. "Globalisation, Gender, and Equity â€“ Effects of Foreign Direct Investment on Labour Markets in Rural Indonesia," European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies: Intervention, Edward Elgar, vol. 3(1), pages 113â€“130.
- Ambreen Fatima & Humera Sultana, 2009. "Tracing out the U-shape relationship between female labor force participation rate and economic development for Pakistan," International Journal of Social Economics, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 36(2), pages 182-198, January.
- Anderson, Siwan & Eswaran, Mukesh, 2009. "What determines female autonomy? Evidence from Bangladesh," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 90(2), pages 179-191, November.
- David E. Bloom & David Canning & Guenther Fink & Jocelyn E. Finlay, 2007.
"Fertility, Female Labor Force Participation, and the Demographic Dividend,"
PGDA Working Papers
2507, Program on the Global Demography of Aging.
- David Bloom & David Canning & Günther Fink & Jocelyn Finlay, 2009. "Fertility, female labor force participation, and the demographic dividend," Journal of Economic Growth, Springer, vol. 14(2), pages 79-101, June.
- David E. Bloom & David Canning & Günther Fink & Jocelyn E. Finlay, 2007. "Fertility, Female Labor Force Participation, and the Demographic Dividend," NBER Working Papers 13583, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Oded Galor & David N. Weil, 1993.
"The Gender Gap, Fertility, and Growth,"
NBER Working Papers
4550, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Amartya Sen, 1995.
"Mortality as an Indicator of Economic Success and Failure,"
innlec95/2, UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre.
- Sen, Amartya, 1998. "Mortality as an Indicator of Economic Success and Failure," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(446), pages 1-25, January.
- Schultz, T. Paul, 1989.
"Women's changing participation in the labor force : a world perspective,"
Policy Research Working Paper Series
272, The World Bank.
- Schultz, T Paul, 1990. "Women's Changing Participation in the Labor Force: A World Perspective," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 38(3), pages 457-88, April.
- Schultz, T.P., 1989. "Women'S Changing Participation In The Labor Force: A World Perspective," Papers 571, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
- Angeles, Gustavo & Guilkey, David K & Mroz, Thomas A, 2005. "The Effects of Education and Family Planning Programs on Fertility in Indonesia," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(1), pages 165-201, October.
- Kristin Mammen & Christina Paxson, 2000. "Women's Work and Economic Development," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(4), pages 141-164, Fall.
- Leonid V. Azarnert, 2008.
"Abortion and Human Capital Accumulation: A Contribution to the Understanding of the Gender Gap in Education,"
2008-06, Bar-Ilan University, Department of Economics.
- Leonid V. Azarnert, 2009. "Abortion And Human Capital Accumulation: A Contribution To The Understanding Of The Gender Gap In Education," Scottish Journal of Political Economy, Scottish Economic Society, vol. 56(5), pages 559-579, November.
- Gale Summerfield, 1997. "Economic Transition in China and Vietnam: Crossing the Poverty Line is Just the First Step for Women and Their Families," Review of Social Economy, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 55(2), pages 201-214.
- Mohammad A. Hossain & Clement A. Tisdell, 2005.
"Closing the gender gap in Bangladesh: inequality in education, employment and earnings,"
International Journal of Social Economics,
Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 32(5), pages 439-453, May.
- Mohammad, Hossain & Tisdell, Clement A., 2003. "Closing the Gender Gap in Bangladesh: Inequality in Education, Employment and Earnings," Social Economics, Policy and Development Working Papers 106948, University of Queensland, School of Economics.
- Ashima Goyal, 2007. "Women Making Choices," Indian Journal of Gender Studies, Centre for Women's Development Studies, vol. 14(3), pages 409-437, December.
- Claudia Goldin, 2006.
"The Quiet Revolution that Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family,"
NBER Working Papers
11953, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Claudia Goldin, 2006. "The Quiet Revolution That Transformed Women's Employment, Education, and Family," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 96(2), pages 1-21, May.
- Nobuhiko FUWA & Seiro ITO & Kensuke KUBO & Takashi KUROSAKI & Yasuyuki SAWADA, 2006. "Introduction To A Study Of Intrahousehold Resource Allocation And Gender Discrimination In Rural Andhra Pradesh, India," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 44(4), pages 375-397.
- Psacharopoulos, George & Tzannatos, Zafiris, 1989. "Female Labor Force Participation: An International Perspective," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 4(2), pages 187-201, July.
- Lupin Rahman & Vijayendra Rao, 2004. "The Determinants of Gender Equity in India: Examining Dyson and Moore's Thesis with New Data," Population and Development Review, The Population Council, Inc., vol. 30(2), pages 239-268.
- Gangadharan, L. & Maitra, P., 2000. "The Effect of Education on the Timing of Marriage and First Conception in Pakistan," Department of Economics - Working Papers Series 742, The University of Melbourne.
- Anu Rammohan & Meliyanni Johar, 2009. "The Determinants of Married Women's Autonomy in Indonesia," Feminist Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(4), pages 31-55.
- David Neumark & Andrew Postlewaite, 1995.
"Relative Income Concerns and the Rise in Married Women's Employment,"
NBER Working Papers
5044, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Neumark, David & Postlewaite, Andrew, 1998. "Relative income concerns and the rise in married women's employment," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 70(1), pages 157-183, October.
- Pitt, Mark M & Khandker, Shahidur R & Cartwright, Jennifer, 2006. "Empowering Women with Micro Finance: Evidence from Bangladesh," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 54(4), pages 791-831, July.
- Amy Liu, 2004. "Sectoral gender wage gap in Vietnam," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(2), pages 225-239.
- Diana Fletschner, 2008. "Women's Access to Credit: Does It Matter for Household Efficiency?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 90(3), pages 669-683.
- Khawar Mumtaz, 2007. "Gender and Poverty in Pakistan," Development, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 50(2), pages 149-153, June.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:19686. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Ekkehart Schlicht)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.