Tracing out the U-shape relationship between female labor force participation rate and economic development for Pakistan
Purpose – Several studies have provided empirical evidence that female labor force participation rate exhibits a U-shape during the process of economic development. The purpose of this paper is to explore the existence of U-shape relationship in the case of Pakistan and if it does exist, what factors determine this U-shape relationship? Design/methodology/approach – For the estimation purpose data according to provinces and regions are pooled for three years. The model is estimated using a simple fixed effect test. Findings – The results affirm the existence of U-shaped relationship. Estimation of the pooled data attributed this U-shape relationship with female education attainment, sectoral employment share, unemployment rate, wages and marital status. Results confirm that high rate of economic development is encouraging the female participation in the labor force by increasing the work opportunities for females. The females are taking full advantage of these increased opportunities by increasing their level of education attainment. Research limitations/implications – In testing the U-shape hypothesis, household expenditure on fuel consumption representing level of economic development in the country is used as the data on GDP are not available at the provincial level. Practical implications – This paper recommends that skill-based education programmes should be promoted so that females could be absorbed in the formal labor market. It also recommends measures to decrease unemployment rates and improve labor market conditions. Originality/value – The paper is first of its kind as it applied pooled data technique for the estimation of U-shape relationship.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 36 (2009)
Issue (Month): 2 (January)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.emeraldinsight.com |
|Order Information:|| Postal: Emerald Group Publishing, Howard House, Wagon Lane, Bingley, BD16 1WA, UK|
Web: http://www.emeraldinsight.com/ijse.htm Email:
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eme:ijsepp:v:36:y:2009:i:2:p:182-198. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Virginia Chapman)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.