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Sectoral gender wage gap in Vietnam


  • Amy Liu


Vietnam is under pressure to reduce the size of the state sector. Using the Vietnam Living Standards Survey 1997-98, the paper examines the impact of this change on the gender earnings gap. Women have traditionally been over-represented in the state sector. After exiting the state sector, some seek jobs in the private sector. Estimation of separate earnings equations by sector suggests that the gender pay gaps in the state-owned enterprises and the private sector are comparable. One may then conclude that women's relative economic position may not have worsened significantly. However, Appleton's decomposition (1999) has demonstrated that the gender pay gap would be much wider if men and women were equally distributed between state and private sectors. Given that further downsizing is planned, it is important to increase women's human capital to reduce their vulnerability. Equal pay legislation and paid maternity leave are some policies that can reduce within-sector earnings inequality.

Suggested Citation

  • Amy Liu, 2004. "Sectoral gender wage gap in Vietnam," Oxford Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 32(2), pages 225-239.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:oxdevs:v:32:y:2004:i:2:p:225-239 DOI: 10.1080/13600810410001699966

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Ahmed, Salma & McGillivray, Mark, 2015. "Human Capital, Discrimination, and the Gender Wage Gap in Bangladesh," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 506-524.
    2. repec:ilo:ilowps:484309 is not listed on IDEAS
    3. VU, Tien Manh & Yamada, Hiroyuki, 2017. "Convergence of public and private enterprise wages in a transition economy: Evidence from a distributional decomposition in Vietnam, 2002–2014," AGI Working Paper Series 2017-10, Asian Growth Research Institute.
    4. Benedikte Bjerge & Nina Torm & Neda Trifkovic, 2016. "Gender matters: Private sector training in Vietnamese SMEs," WIDER Working Paper Series 149, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    5. Goulding, Kristine., 2013. "Gender dimensions of national employment policies : a 24-country study," ILO Working Papers 994835833402676, International Labour Organization.
    6. Kien Trung Nguyen, 2014. "The impact of trade and investment liberalization on the wage skill premium: evidence from Vietnam," Departmental Working Papers 2014-20, The Australian National University, Arndt-Corden Department of Economics.
    7. Kang, Woojin & Imai, Katsushi S., 2012. "Pro-poor growth, poverty and inequality in rural Vietnam," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(5), pages 527-539.
    8. Huong Vu & Steven Lim & Mark Holmes & Tinh Doan, 2013. "Firm Exporting and Employee Benefits: First Evidence from Vietnam Manufacturing SMEs," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(1), pages 519-535.
    9. Tuan M. Ha & Ockie J. H. Bosch & Nam C. Nguyen, 2016. "Establishing an Evolutionary Learning Laboratory for Improving the Quality of Life of Vietnamese Women in Small-scale Agriculture: Part I—The Current Situation," Systems Research and Behavioral Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 33(4), pages 532-543, July.
    10. Trifkovic Neda, 2015. "Spillover Effects of International Standards: Work Conditions in Vietnamese Small and Medium Enterprises," WIDER Working Paper Series 047, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    11. repec:ilo:ilowps:483583 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Stephanie Seguino, 2008. "Gender, Distribution, and Balance of Payments (revised 10/08)," Working Papers wp133_revised, Political Economy Research Institute, University of Massachusetts at Amherst.
    13. Vu, Van Huong, 2012. "Does export participation affect wages and employment quality? the case of Vietnamese SMEs," MPRA Paper 38696, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    14. Trung, Le Dang & Oostendorp, Remco H., 2017. "Regional Labor Market Integration, Shadow Wages and Poverty in Vietnam," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 89(C), pages 34-56.
    15. Remco H. Oostendorp & Doan Hong Quang, 2011. "The Impact of Trade Liberalization on the Return to Education in Vietnam: Wage versus Employment Effect," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 11-060/3, Tinbergen Institute, revised 04 Apr 2011.
    16. repec:ilo:ilowps:399524 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Chaudhuri, Sanjukta, 2010. "Women's Empowerment in South Asia and Southeast Asia: A Comparative Analysis," MPRA Paper 19686, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Goulding, Kristine., 2013. "Gender dimensions of national employment policies : a 24-country study," ILO Working Papers 994843093402676, International Labour Organization.
    19. Chicha, Marie-Thérèse., 2006. "A comparative analysis of promoting pay equity : models and impacts," ILO Working Papers 993995243402676, International Labour Organization.

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