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Domains of reciprocity beyond monetary compensation: How do non-pecuniary factors affect effort and shirking?


  • Akinori Tomohara
  • Akihiko Ohno
  • Caroline Elliott


This empirical study examines how sources of reciprocity are related to work motivation by distinguishing positive and negative work attitudes in practical working environments. We move away from the unidimensional perspective of monetary compensation and investigate employees’ reciprocal behaviors, together with non-pecuniary aspects of work relations such as human relationships and company management. The results show that positive reciprocity, represented by effort, is fundamentally distinct from negative reciprocity, represented by shirking, when examining the multi-dimensional sources of reciprocity. Additionally, our analyses reveal that non-pecuniary factors in the working environment have a relatively large degree of association with work motivation, even when compared to monetary compensation. Our results complement those from controlled laboratory experiments.

Suggested Citation

  • Akinori Tomohara & Akihiko Ohno & Caroline Elliott, 2016. "Domains of reciprocity beyond monetary compensation: How do non-pecuniary factors affect effort and shirking?," Cogent Economics & Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 4(1), pages 1178884-117, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:oaefxx:v:4:y:2016:i:1:p:1178884
    DOI: 10.1080/23322039.2016.1178884

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