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Does export and productivity growth linkage exist? Evidence from the Indian manufacturing industry


  • Chandan Sharma
  • Ritesh Kumar Mishra


This paper examines the interrelation between exporting and productivity performance by using a representative sample of Indian manufacturing firms over the period 1994--2006. Specifically, we attempt to test the empirical validity of the learning‐by‐exporting and the self‐selection hypotheses for our sample firms. In order to investigate the linkage, in the first step, we test for causality between TFP and export intensity of firms. Although overall results are rather mixed and provide some support for both hypotheses, still the empirical results are more favorable for the self‐selection behavior of firms. In the next stage, we attempt to provide evidence on export and productivity linkage that occurs during various phases of transition in the export market. Our results suggest that entering in the export market does not improve productivity performance. However, the decision to exit from the export market does have an adverse effect on the productivity. In addition, our results indicate the presence of a high sunk cost of exporting coupled with perhaps lesser information about foreign markets. Finally, our results also lend some support to the significant role of in‐house research activities and economies of scale in firms' productivity performance.

Suggested Citation

  • Chandan Sharma & Ritesh Kumar Mishra, 2011. "Does export and productivity growth linkage exist? Evidence from the Indian manufacturing industry," International Review of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 25(6), pages 633-652, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:irapec:v:25:y:2011:i:6:p:633-652
    DOI: 10.1080/02692171.2011.557046

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Chandan Sharma, 2016. "R&D, Technology Transfer And Productivity In The Indian Pharmaceutical Industry," International Journal of Innovation Management (ijim), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 20(01), pages 1-24, January.
    2. Marie-Ange VEGANZONES-VAROUDAKIS & Arup MITRA & Chandan SHARMA, 2012. "Are reforms productive? Explaining productivity and efficiency in the Indian manufacturing," Working Papers 201233, CERDI.
    3. repec:spr:rvmgts:v:12:y:2018:i:1:d:10.1007_s11846-016-0218-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Bhanumurthy, N.R. & Sharma, Chandan, 2013. "Does Weak Rupee Matter for India's Manufacturing Exports?," Working Papers 13/115, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.
    5. C Sharma, 2016. "Does importing more inputs raise productivity and exports? Some evidence from Indian manufacturing," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 21(1), pages 1-23, March.
    6. Sharma, Chandan & Mishra, Ritesh Kumar, 2015. "International trade and performance of firms: Unraveling export, import and productivity puzzle," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 61-74.
    7. Shahid Yusuf, 2014. "Middle East Transitions; A Long, Hard Road," IMF Working Papers 14/135, International Monetary Fund.
    8. Mitra, Arup & Sharma, Chandan & Véganzonès-Varoudakis, Marie-Ange, 2014. "Trade liberalization, technology transfer, and firms’ productive performance: The case of Indian manufacturing," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 1-15.
    9. Vu, Van Huong, 2012. "Private manufacturing SMEs survival and growth in Vietnam: The role of export participation," MPRA Paper 42489, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    10. repec:bok:journl:v:19:y:2013:i:2:p:97-120 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Santosh Kumar Sahu & Krishnan Narayanan, 2011. "Total Factor Productivity and Energy Intensity in Indian Manufacturing: A Cross-Sectional Study," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 1(2), pages 47-58, September.
    12. Awadhesh Pratap SINGH, 2016. "Do Technology Spillovers Accelerate Performance of Firms? Unravelling a Puzzle from Indian Manufacturing Industry," Economics and Applied Informatics, "Dunarea de Jos" University of Galati, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, issue 3, pages 108-120.
    13. Fakih, Ali & Ghazalian, Pascal L., 2013. "Why Some Firms Export? An Empirical Analysis for Manufacturing Firms in the MENA Region," IZA Discussion Papers 7172, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    14. Marco Grazzi & Nanditha Mathew & Daniele Moschella, 2017. "Efficiency, innovation, and imported inputs: determinants of export performance among Indian manufacturing firms," LEM Papers Series 2017/09, Laboratory of Economics and Management (LEM), Sant'Anna School of Advanced Studies, Pisa, Italy.
    15. repec:bpj:glecon:v:17:y:2017:i:1:p:11:n:8 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Armando Silva & Óscar Afonso & Ana Paula Africano, 2010. "Do Portuguese manufacturing firms self select to exports?," FEP Working Papers 371, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    17. Huong Vu & Steven Lim, 2013. "Exports and Firm survival: The first evidence from Vietnam private manufacturing SMEs," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 33(2), pages 1259-1268.
    18. Wenjun Liu & Shoji Nishijima, 2013. "Productivity and openness: firm level evidence in Brazilian manufacturing industries," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 46(4), pages 363-384, November.
    19. Cebeci, Tolga, 2014. "Impact of export destinations on firm performance," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6743, The World Bank.
    20. Vu, Van Huong, 2012. "Higher productivity in Exporters: self-selection, learning by exporting or both? Evidence from Vietnamese manufacturing SMEs," MPRA Paper 40708, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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