Comparing Patterns of Industrial Interdependence in National Systems of Innovation - A Study of Germany, the United Kingdom, Japan and the United States
This paper presents a quantitatively based method for comparing the structure of National Systems of Innovation (NSI). The emphasis is on technological interdependencies at the industrial level in Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. The mapping of the interdependencies, based on input-output tables, builds on a graph theoretical model (a minimal flow analysis). R&D expenses are used as the technology indicator. The NSI framework is taken as the point of departure. It is claimed that 'history matters', through relating historical descriptions and analyses of industrialization processes to the findings of structural analyses of R&D interdependencies within the NSIs. The paper shows that the national systems tend to cluster in two main 'bulks'. One is centred around industrial chemicals and/or pharmaceuticals, and the other is centred around communication equipment, electronics etc. In most cases these clusters do not appear to be closely technologically related through embodied R&D flows, i.e. it seems appropriate to assume that two distinct technology bases are at play.
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Volume (Year): 12 (2000)
Issue (Month): 3 ()
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