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Housing market cycles and duration dependence in the United States and Canada

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  • Rose Cunningham
  • Ilan Kolet

Abstract

Housing wealth is a large component of households' total wealth and plays an important role in aggregate business cycles. In this article, we explore data on real house price cycles at the aggregate level and city level for the US and Canada. Using a panel of 137 cities, we examine the duration and characteristics of housing market cycles in North America. We find that North American housing cycles are long, averaging 5 years of expansion and 4 years of contraction. We estimate a discrete time survival model with a probit specification for house price expansions and contractions. This model allows us to test for duration dependence. We find that US housing market expansions have positive duration dependence since their exit probabilities increase with duration, while contractions seem to have no duration dependence. Canadian house price cycles did not exhibit duration dependence. Standard determinants of house prices (interest rates, income and population growth) are included as controls.

Suggested Citation

  • Rose Cunningham & Ilan Kolet, 2011. "Housing market cycles and duration dependence in the United States and Canada," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(5), pages 569-586.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:applec:v:43:y:2011:i:5:p:569-586
    DOI: 10.1080/00036840802584927
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Holly, Sean & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Yamagata, Takashi, 2010. "A spatio-temporal model of house prices in the USA," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 158(1), pages 160-173, September.
    2. Ceron, Jose A. & Suarez, Javier, 2006. "Hot and Cold Housing Markets: International Evidence," CEPR Discussion Papers 5411, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    3. Nathalie Girouard & Mike Kennedy & Paul van den Noord & Christophe André, 2006. "Recent House Price Developments: The Role of Fundamentals," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 475, OECD Publishing.
    4. Robert F. Martin, 2005. "The baby boom: predictability in house prices and interest rates," International Finance Discussion Papers 847, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    5. Dennis R. Capozza & Patric H. Hendershott & Charlotte Mack & Christopher J. Mayer, 2002. "Determinants of Real House Price Dynamics," NBER Working Papers 9262, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    1. repec:eee:dyncon:v:83:y:2017:i:c:p:215-231 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Castroa, Vitor & Kubota, Megumi, 2013. "Duration dependence and change-points in the likelihood of credit booms ending," Policy Research Working Paper Series 6475, The World Bank.
    3. Alberto Madrid & Luis A. Hierro, 2015. "Burbujas especulativas: el estado de una cuestión poco estudiada," Cuadernos de Economía - Spanish Journal of Economics and Finance, ELSEVIER, vol. 38(108), pages 123-138, Septiembr.
    4. de Bruijn, L.P. & Franses, Ph.H.B.F., 2015. "Stochastic levels and duration dependence in US unemployment," Econometric Institute Research Papers EI2015-20, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Erasmus School of Economics (ESE), Econometric Institute.
    5. Bracke, Philippe, 2013. "How long do housing cycles last? A duration analysis for 19 OECD countries," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(3), pages 213-230.
    6. Agustín S. Bénétrix & Barry Eichengreen & Kevin H. O'Rourke, 2012. "How housing slumps end," Economic Policy, CEPR;CES;MSH, vol. 27(72), pages 647-692, October.
    7. Kishor, N. Kundan & Kumari, Swati & Song, Suyong, 2015. "Time variation in the relative importance of permanent and transitory components in the U.S. housing market," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 12(C), pages 92-99.
    8. Boysen-Hogrefe, Jens & Jannsen, Nils & Meier, Carsten-Patrick, 2016. "A Note On Banking And Housing Crises And The Strength Of Recoveries," Macroeconomic Dynamics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 20(07), pages 1924-1933, October.

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