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Threshold effects in the relationships between USD and gold futures by panel smooth transition approach


  • Wo-Chiang Lee
  • Hui-Na Lin


Using a Panel Smooth Transition Regression (PSTR) model, this study sets crude oil as threshold variable, and Volatility Index (VIX) and Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI) for Emerging Market Index (MSCI-E) as control variables to investigate the nonlinear dynamic relationship between USD/yen and gold futures in the Commodity Exchange, Inc. (COMEX). Empirical results show that the transition function is a logistic type. In region 1, the price of crude oil is low. The sign of VIX is positive. USD/yen exerts negative impact on gold market due to the way that gold market functions as a factor of hedge against portfolio and geopolitical risk. In region 2, the price of crude oil is higher (the demand for crude oil may be stronger). The economy is prosperous; VIX turns low; USD/yen increases. Investors have more money from other financial markets to buy gold, thus, causing gold futures price to rise. Besides, gold is both a hedge and a safe haven for developing countries but not for emerging countries; therefore, the relationships between gold and MSCI-E are positive in both regions.

Suggested Citation

  • Wo-Chiang Lee & Hui-Na Lin, 2012. "Threshold effects in the relationships between USD and gold futures by panel smooth transition approach," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 19(11), pages 1065-1070, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:19:y:2012:i:11:p:1065-1070 DOI: 10.1080/13504851.2011.613747

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Andrés González & Timo Teräsvirta & Dick van Dijk & Yukai Yang, 1910. "Panel Smooth Transition Regression Models," CREATES Research Papers 2017-36, Department of Economics and Business Economics, Aarhus University.
    2. Hansen, Bruce E., 1999. "Threshold effects in non-dynamic panels: Estimation, testing, and inference," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 93(2), pages 345-368, December.
    3. Gilbert Colletaz & Christophe Hurlin, 2006. "Threshold Effects in the Public Capital Productivity: an International Panel Smooth Transition Approach," Post-Print halshs-00257487, HAL.
    4. Baur, Dirk G. & McDermott, Thomas K., 2010. "Is gold a safe haven? International evidence," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1886-1898, August.
    5. Ramaprasad Bhar & Shigeyuki Hamori, 2004. "Information Flow between Price Change and Trading Volume in Gold Futures Contracts," International Journal of Business and Economics, College of Business and College of Finance, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, vol. 3(1), pages 45-56, April.
    6. Gilbert Colletaz & Christophe Hurlin, 2006. "Threshold Effects of the Public Capital Productivity : An International Panel Smooth Transition Approach," Working Papers halshs-00008056, HAL.
    7. Giam Quang Do & Michael Mcaleer & Songsak Sriboonchitta, 2009. "Effects of international gold market on stock exchange volatility: evidence from asean emerging stock markets," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 29(2), pages 599-610.
    8. Graham Smith, 2002. "Tests of the random walk hypothesis for London gold prices," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(10), pages 671-674.
    9. Capie, Forrest & Mills, Terence C. & Wood, Geoffrey, 2005. "Gold as a hedge against the dollar," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 15(4), pages 343-352, October.
    10. Shawkat Hammoudeh & Ramazan Sari & Bradley T. Ewing, 2009. "Relationships Among Strategic Commodities And With Financial Variables: A New Look," Contemporary Economic Policy, Western Economic Association International, vol. 27(2), pages 251-264, April.
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    Cited by:

    1. Raza, Naveed & Jawad Hussain Shahzad, Syed & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2016. "Asymmetric impact of gold, oil prices and their volatilities on stock prices of emerging markets," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 290-301.
    2. Jain, Anshul & Biswal, P.C., 2016. "Dynamic linkages among oil price, gold price, exchange rate, and stock market in India," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 179-185.
    3. repec:ebl:ecbull:eb-17-00288 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Joscha Beckmann & Robert Czudaj, 2013. "Oil and gold price dynamics in a multivariate cointegration framework," International Economics and Economic Policy, Springer, vol. 10(3), pages 453-468, September.

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