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Estimating cointegrating vectors using near unit root variables


  • Aaron Smallwood
  • Stefan Norrbin


This paper argues that the predominant method of estimating equilibrium relationships in macroeconometric models, namely the VECM system of Johansen, is severely flawed if the underlying variables are distributed as near unit root processes. Researchers may apply cointegration techniques to these processes, as the power of rejecting near unit roots using standard unit root tests is extremely low. Using Monte Carlo analysis, problematic behaviour of cointegration analysis is found in detecting the true underlying form of the connection between the near unit root processes. Furthermore the connecting vector is imprecisely estimated, resulting in problematic inference for error correction models.

Suggested Citation

  • Aaron Smallwood & Stefan Norrbin, 2004. "Estimating cointegrating vectors using near unit root variables," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(12), pages 781-784.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:11:y:2004:i:12:p:781-784 DOI: 10.1080/1350485042000245520

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Kapetanios, George & Shin, Yongcheol & Snell, Andy, 2003. "Testing for a unit root in the nonlinear STAR framework," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 112(2), pages 359-379, February.
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    5. Karim M. Abadir & A. M. Robert Taylor, "undated". "On the Definitions of (Co-)Integration," Discussion Papers 97/19, Department of Economics, University of York.
    6. Engle, Robert & Granger, Clive, 2015. "Co-integration and error correction: Representation, estimation, and testing," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 39(3), pages 106-135.
    7. Gonzalo, Jesus & Lee, Tae-Hwy, 1998. "Pitfalls in testing for long run relationships," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 129-154, June.
    8. Marinucci, D & Robinson, Peter M., 2001. "Semiparametric fractional cointegration analysis," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 2269, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    9. Dirk Te Velde, 2001. "Balance of payments prospects in EMU," National Institute of Economic and Social Research (NIESR) Discussion Papers 178, National Institute of Economic and Social Research.
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    Cited by:

    1. Erik Hjalmarsson & Pär Österholm, 2010. "Testing for cointegration using the Johansen methodology when variables are near-integrated: size distortions and partial remedies," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 39(1), pages 51-76, August.
    2. Niko Gobbin & Glenn Rayp, 2008. "Different ways of looking at old issues: a time-series approach to inequality and growth," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 40(7), pages 885-895.

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