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The decision to export: a panel data analysis for Spanish manufacturing


  • Juan Manez
  • Maria Rochina
  • Juan Sanchis


This paper aims to empirically analyse the determinants of the decision to export using a sample of Spanish manufacturing firms during the 1990s. The data are drawn from the Encuesta sobre Estrategias Empresariales. A panel data probit model is used that is estimated using maximum-likelihood techniques. The results show that regional and local spillovers and firm characteristics such as age, size, productivity, corporation, foreign ownership, R&D and advertising intensity, have a positive and significant influence on the probability of exporting. Furthermore, public sector oriented sales have a significant and negative impact.

Suggested Citation

  • Juan Manez & Maria Rochina & Juan Sanchis, 2004. "The decision to export: a panel data analysis for Spanish manufacturing," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(11), pages 669-673.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:apeclt:v:11:y:2004:i:11:p:669-673 DOI: 10.1080/1350485042000236601

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Baldwin, John R. & Rafiquzzaman, Mohammed, 1995. "Selection versus evolutionary adaptation: Learning and post-entry performance," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 501-522, December.
    2. Delgado, Miguel A. & Farinas, Jose C. & Ruano, Sonia, 2002. "Firm productivity and export markets: a non-parametric approach," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 397-422, August.
    3. Pakes, Ariel & Ericson, Richard, 1998. "Empirical Implications of Alternative Models of Firm Dynamics," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 79(1), pages 1-45, March.
    4. Andrew B. Bernard & J. Bradford Jensen, 2004. "Why Some Firms Export," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 86(2), pages 561-569, May.
    5. Salvador Barrios & Holger Görg & Eric Strobl, "undated". "Explaining Firms' Export Behaviour: The Role of R&D and Spillovers," Working Papers 2001-12, FEDEA.
    6. Timothy Dunne & Mark J. Roberts & Larry Samuelson, 1989. "The Growth and Failure of U. S. Manufacturing Plants," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 104(4), pages 671-698.
    7. Ana Buisan & Esther Gordo, 1994. "Funciones de importación y exportación de la economía española," Investigaciones Economicas, Fundación SEPI, vol. 18(1), pages 165-192, January.
    8. Roberts, Mark J & Tybout, James R, 1997. "The Decision to Export in Colombia: An Empirical Model of Entry with Sunk Costs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 545-564, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. José Vicente Blanes Cristóbal & Juliette Milgram Baleix, 2009. "Costes irrecuperables de exportación, productividad y elección de mercado de exportación de las empresas españolas," FEG Working Paper Series 09/04, Faculty of Economics and Business (University of Granada).
    2. Fernández-Olmos, Marta & Díez-Vial, Isabel, 2013. "Effect of firm’s resources on international diversification: An application in the Iberian Ham industry," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 196-208.
    3. Marion Dovis & Juliette Milgram-Baleix, 2009. "Trade, Tariffs and Total Factor Productivity: The Case of Spanish Firms," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 32(4), pages 575-605, April.
    4. Gullstrand, Joakim, 2011. "Firm and destination-specific export costs: The case of the Swedish food sector," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 204-213, April.
    5. Minondo, Asier, 2012. "Trading firms in the Spanish services sector," MPRA Paper 43224, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Libaers, Dirk & Meyer, Martin, 2011. "Highly innovative small technology firms, industrial clusters and firm internationalization," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 40(10), pages 1426-1437.
    7. Fryges, Helmut, 2006. "Hidden champions - how young and small technology-oriented firms can attain high export-sales ratios," ZEW Discussion Papers 06-045, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.

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