Socio-Economic Inequalities in Happiness in China and U.S
Our paper studies the determinants of happiness in China and U.S. and provides a better understanding of the issue of inequalities in happiness beyond income inequality. Based on the two waves of nation-wide survey data on happiness collected by World Values Survey in 1995 and 2007, Probit and ordinary least square methods are used to estimate effects of various factors on happiness. Our findings show that socio-economic inequalities increase inequalities in happiness in China. The poor are the least happy even though the income effect flats out at the high end. Individuals with below high school education attainment are less happy than those with more education. Agricultural workers are the most unhappy and are becoming even more unhappy over time. However, in U.S., there is no systematic difference in happiness across income and education groups and between agricultural and non-agricultural workers. In both countries health is a major factor contributing to happiness. Our study implies that adequate provision of national health care services should be an effective way to improve social welfare. Besides, since the probability of being happy for agricultural workers is still considerably less after controlling for income in China, policies to improve their welfare should not be limited to enhancing current income. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
Volume (Year): 116 (2014)
Issue (Month): 2 (April)
|Contact details of provider:|| Web page: http://www.springer.com/economics/journal/11135|
|Order Information:||Web: http://link.springer.de/orders.htm|
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Stavros Drakopoulos, 2008.
"The paradox of happiness: towards an alternative explanation,"
Journal of Happiness Studies,
Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 303-315, June.
- Drakopoulos, Stavros A., 2005. "The paradox of Happiness: towards an alternative explanation," MPRA Paper 6870, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Blanchflower, David G. & Oswald, Andrew J., 2004.
"Well-being over time in Britain and the USA,"
Journal of Public Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 88(7-8), pages 1359-1386, July.
- Blanchflower, David G. & Oswald, Andrew J., 2001. "Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 616, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
- David G. Blanchflower & Andrew J. Oswald, 2000. "Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA," NBER Working Papers 7487, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Daniel Shek, 2010. "Introduction: Quality of Life of Chinese People in a Changing World," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 95(3), pages 357-361, February.
- Daniel Kahneman & Alan B. Krueger, 2006. "Developments in the Measurement of Subjective Well-Being," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 20(1), pages 3-24, Winter.
- Andrew E. Clark and Andrew J. Oswald, .
"Satisfaction and Comparison Income,"
Economics Discussion Papers
419, University of Essex, Department of Economics.
- Jörg Schimmel, 2009. "Development as Happiness: The Subjective Perception of Happiness and UNDP’s Analysis of Poverty, Wealth and Development," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 93-111, March.
- Bruno S. Frey & Alois Stutzer, 2001.
"What Can Economists Learn from Happiness Research?,"
CESifo Working Paper Series
503, CESifo Group Munich.
- Bruno S. Frey & Alois Stutzer, 2002. "What Can Economists Learn from Happiness Research?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 40(2), pages 402-435, June.
- Bruno S. Frey & Alois Stutzer, . "What can Economists Learn from Happiness Research?," IEW - Working Papers 080, Institute for Empirical Research in Economics - University of Zurich.
- Easterlin, Richard A., 1995. "Will raising the incomes of all increase the happiness of all?," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 35-47, June.
- Oswald, A.J., 1997.
"Happiness and Economic Performance,"
18, Centre for Economic Performance & Institute of Economics.
- Oswald, Andrew, 1997. "Happiness and Economic Performance," The Warwick Economics Research Paper Series (TWERPS) 478, University of Warwick, Department of Economics.
- Philip Oreopoulos, 2003. "Do Dropouts Drop Out Too Soon? Evidence from Changes in School-Leaving Laws," Working Papers oreo-03-01, University of Toronto, Department of Economics.
- Easterlin, Richard A, 2001. "Income and Happiness: Towards an Unified Theory," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 111(473), pages 465-84, July.
- Richard B. Freeman, 1977.
"Job Satisfaction as an Economic Variable,"
NBER Working Papers
0225, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Claude Fischer, 2008. "What wealth-happiness paradox? A short note on the American case," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 219-226, June.
- Nielsen, Ingrid & Smyth, Russell, 2008. "Job satisfaction and response to incentives among China's urban workforce," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1921-1936, October.
- Mike Martin, 2008. "Paradoxes of happiness," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 9(2), pages 171-184, June.
- Laura Camfield & Kaneta Choudhury & Joe Devine, 2009. "Well-being, Happiness and Why Relationships Matter: Evidence from Bangladesh," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 71-91, March.
- Ferrer-i-Carbonell, Ada, 2005. "Income and well-being: an empirical analysis of the comparison income effect," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(5-6), pages 997-1019, June.
- Arménio Rego & Miguel Cunha, 2009. "How individualism–collectivism orientations predict happiness in a collectivistic context," Journal of Happiness Studies, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 19-35, March.
- Alex Michalos & Bruno Zumbo & Anita Hubley, 2000. "Health and the Quality of Life," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 51(3), pages 245-286, September.
- Daniel Shek, 2011. "Quality of Life Research: Responses to Emerging Issues in a Changing World," Social Indicators Research, Springer, vol. 100(3), pages 371-374, February.
- Andrew E. Clark & Paul Frijters & Michael A. Shields, 2008.
"Relative Income, Happiness, and Utility: An Explanation for the Easterlin Paradox and Other Puzzles,"
Journal of Economic Literature,
American Economic Association, vol. 46(1), pages 95-144, March.
- Clark, Andrew E. & Frijters, Paul & Shields, Michael A., 2007. "Relative Income, Happiness and Utility: An Explanation for the Easterlin Paradox and Other Puzzles," IZA Discussion Papers 2840, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
- Andrew E. Clark & Paul Frijters & Michael A. Shields, 2008. "Relative income, happiness, and utility: An explanation for the Easterlin paradox and other puzzles," Post-Print halshs-00754299, HAL.
- Easterlin, Richard A., 2006. "Life cycle happiness and its sources: Intersections of psychology, economics, and demography," Journal of Economic Psychology, Elsevier, vol. 27(4), pages 463-482, August.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:soinre:v:116:y:2014:i:2:p:509-533. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla)or (Christopher F Baum)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.