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Urbanization and expenditure inequality in Indonesia: testing the Kuznets hypothesis with provincial panel data

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  • Perdamen Sagala

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  • Takahiro Akita

    ()

  • Arief Yusuf

    ()

Abstract

Focusing on Indonesia, this study analyzes the relationship between inequality and the process of urbanization. It performs a panel data regression analysis to test the Kuznets inverted-U hypothesis for urbanization based on a provincial panel data set of 33 provinces over the period 2000–2009, constructed by using the core National Socio-economic Survey (core Susenas). Our results support the Kuznets inverted-U hypothesis, whether the Gini coefficient or the Theil indices are used as a measure of inequality. According to our estimates, expenditure inequality would reach the peak at an urbanization rate of around 46–50 %. Since the 2010 urbanization rate is 50 %, this indicates that expenditure inequality has already attained the peak value. Thus, further urbanization would decrease expenditure inequality, but all other things being equal. Copyright Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Suggested Citation

  • Perdamen Sagala & Takahiro Akita & Arief Yusuf, 2014. "Urbanization and expenditure inequality in Indonesia: testing the Kuznets hypothesis with provincial panel data," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 133-147, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:lsprsc:v:7:y:2014:i:3:p:133-147
    DOI: 10.1007/s12076-013-0106-7
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Takahiro Akita, 2017. "Educational Expansion and the Role of Education in Expenditure Inequality in Indonesia Since the 1997 Financial Crisis," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 130(3), pages 1165-1186, February.
    2. Sui Chin Tan & Chong Mun Ho & Vincent Pang, 2016. "Why Has Education Inequality Widened in Sabah, Malaysia?," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 36(1), pages 569-575.
    3. Tan, Sui Chin & Ho, Chong Mun & Pang, Vincent, 2015. "Education inequality: become better or worse?," MPRA Paper 61627, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Urbanization; Expenditure inequality; Kuznets hypothesis; Panel data regression; Indonesia; O18; R11;

    JEL classification:

    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes

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