Urbanization and Expenditure Inequality in Indonesia: Testing the Kuznets Hypothesis with Provincial Panel Data
Focusing on Indonesia, this study analyzes the relationship between inequality and the process of urbanization. It performs a panel data regression analysis to test the Kuznets inverted-U hypothesis for urbanization based on a provincial panel data set of 33 provinces over the period 2000-2009, constructed by using the core National Socio-economic Survey (core Susenas). Our results support the Kuznets inverted-U hypothesis, whether the Gini coefficient or the Theil indices are used as a measure of inequality. According to our estimates, expenditure inequality would reach the peak at an urbanization rate of around 46-50%. Since the 2010 urbanization rate is 50%, this indicates that expenditure inequality has already attained the peak value. Thus, further urbanization would decrease expenditure inequality, but all other things being equal.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.iuj.ac.jp/research/
More information through EDIRC
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Takahiro Akita & Rizal Affandi Lukman, 1999. "Spatial Patterns of Expenditure Inequalities in Indonesia: 1987, 1990 and 1993," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(2), pages 67-90.
- Deininger, Klaus & Squire, Lyn, 1998. "New ways of looking at old issues: inequality and growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 259-287.
- Papanek, Gustav F. & Kyn, Oldrich, 1986. "The effect on income distribution of development, the growth rate and economic strategy," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 55-65, September.
- Anthony Shorrocks & Guanghua Wan, 2005.
"Spatial decomposition of inequality,"
Journal of Economic Geography,
Oxford University Press, vol. 5(1), pages 59-81, January.
- Campano, Fred & Salvatore, Dominick, 1988. "Economic development, income inequality and Kuznets' U-shaped hypothesis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 265-280.
- Knight, J B, 1976. "Explaining Income Distribution in Less Developed Countries: A Framework and an Agenda," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 38(3), pages 161-77, August.
- Takahiro Akita & Alit Pirmansah, 2011. "Urban Inequality in Indonesia," Working Papers EMS_2011_04, Research Institute, International University of Japan.
- Frazer, Garth, 2006. "Inequality and development across and within countries," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 34(9), pages 1459-1481, September.
- Matyas, L. & Konya, L. & Macquarie, L., 1997.
"The Kuznets U-Curve Hypothesis: Some Panel Data Evidence,"
Monash Econometrics and Business Statistics Working Papers
7/97, Monash University, Department of Econometrics and Business Statistics.
- Laszlo Matyas & Laszlo Konya & Lachlan MaCquarie, 1998. "The Kuznets U-curve hypothesis: some panel data evidence," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 5(11), pages 693-697.
- Ram, Rati, 1988. "Economic development and income inequality: Further evidence on the U-curve hypothesis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 16(11), pages 1371-1376, November.
- Huang, Ho-Chuan River, 2004. "A flexible nonlinear inference to the Kuznets hypothesis," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 289-296, August.
- Andrew Leigh & Pierre van der Eng, 2007.
"Top Incomes in Indonesia, 1920-2004,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
549, Centre for Economic Policy Research, Research School of Economics, Australian National University.
- Leigh, Andrew & van der Eng, Pierre, 2009. "Inequality in Indonesia: What can we learn from top incomes?," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 93(1-2), pages 209-212, February.
- Takahiro AKITA & Rizal Affandi LUKMAN & Yukino YAMADA, 1999. "Inequality In The Distribution Of Household Expenditures In Indonesia: A Theil Decomposition Analysis," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 37(2), pages 197-221, 06.
- Ram, Rati, 1990. "Educational Expansion and Schooling Inequality: International Evidence and Some Implications," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 266-74, May.
- Ram, Rati, 1989. "Can educational expansion reduce income inequality in less-developed countries?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 185-195, April.
- Robinson, Sherman, 1976. "A Note on the U Hypothesis Relating Income Inequality and Economic Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 66(3), pages 437-40, June.
- Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
- Saith, Ashwani, 1983. "Development and distribution : A critique of the cross-country U-hypothesis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 367-382, December.
- Knight, J B & Sabot, R H, 1983. "Educational Expansion and the Kuznets Effect," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 1132-36, December.
- Akita, Takahiro & Miyata, Sachiko, 2007. "Urbanization, educational expansion, and expenditures inequality in Indonesia in 1996, 1999, and 2002:," IFPRI discussion papers 728, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
- Saith, A., 1983. "Development and distribution : a critique of the cross-country U-hypothesis," ISS Working Papers - General Series 18763, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
- Luis Angeles, 2010. "An alternative test of Kuznets’ hypothesis," Journal of Economic Inequality, Springer, vol. 8(4), pages 463-473, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iuj:wpaper:ems_2013_20. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kazumi Imai, Office of Academic Affairs)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.