Educational Expansion and Inequality in Indonesia: Testing the Kuznets Hypothesis with Provincial Panel Data
This study analyzes the relationship between the level of educational attainment, educational inequality and expenditure inequality in Indonesia based on a provincial panel data set from 1996-2011 and attempts to test the Kuznets hypothesis for educational expansion. We found that educational inequality decreases as the average level of educational attainment increases. In contrast, expenditure inequality follows an inverted U-shaped pattern with respect to educational expansion and reaches the maximum at around 9-10 years of education. Given the current average educational level, further educational expansion would increase expenditure inequality. However, more equal distribution of education has an equalizing effect.
|Date of creation:||Sep 2013|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 777 Kokusai-cho, Minami Uonuma0-shi, Niigata 949-7277 JAPAN|
Web page: http://www.iuj.ac.jp/research/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Huang, Ho-Chuan River, 2004. "A flexible nonlinear inference to the Kuznets hypothesis," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 84(2), pages 289-296, August.
- Ram, Rati, 1989. "Can educational expansion reduce income inequality in less-developed countries?," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 185-195, April.
- Saith, A., 1983. "Development and distribution : a critique of the cross-country U-hypothesis," ISS Working Papers - General Series 18763, International Institute of Social Studies of Erasmus University Rotterdam (ISS), The Hague.
- Robinson, Sherman, 1976. "A Note on the U Hypothesis Relating Income Inequality and Economic Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 66(3), pages 437-40, June.
- Saith, Ashwani, 1983. "Development and distribution : A critique of the cross-country U-hypothesis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 367-382, December.
- Park, Kang H., 1996. "Educational expansion and educational inequality on income distribution," Economics of Education Review, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 51-58, February.
- Knight, J B, 1976. "Explaining Income Distribution in Less Developed Countries: A Framework and an Agenda," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 38(3), pages 161-77, August.
- Jha, Sailesh K., 1996. "The Kuznets curve: A reassessment," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 24(4), pages 773-780, April.
- Ram, Rati, 1988. "Economic development and income inequality: Further evidence on the U-curve hypothesis," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 16(11), pages 1371-1376, November.
- Knight, J B & Sabot, R H, 1983. "Educational Expansion and the Kuznets Effect," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(5), pages 1132-36, December.
- Anand, Sudhir & Kanbur, S. M. R., 1993. "The Kuznets process and the inequality--development relationship," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 25-52, February.
- Takahiro Akita & Alit Pirmansah, 2011. "Urban Inequality in Indonesia," Working Papers EMS_2011_04, Research Institute, International University of Japan.
- De Gregorio, Jose & Lee, Jong-Wha, 2002. "Education and Income Inequality: New Evidence from Cross-Country Data," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 48(3), pages 395-416, September.
- Ram, Rati, 1990. "Educational Expansion and Schooling Inequality: International Evidence and Some Implications," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 72(2), pages 266-74, May.
- Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:iuj:wpaper:ems_2013_18. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Kazumi Imai, Office of Academic Affairs)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.