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Urbanization, educational expansion, and expenditures inequality in Indonesia in 1996, 1999, and 2002:

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  • Akita, Takahiro
  • Miyata, Sachiko

Abstract

"This paper considers urban-rural location and education as the main causes of expenditure inequality and attempts to examine inequality changes associated with urbanization and educational expansion in Indonesia from 1996 to 2002, using Indonesian monthly household consumption expenditure data. It introduces a hierarchical framework of inequality decomposition by population subgroups, which enables researchers to analyze inequality resulting from differences in educational attainment as well as inequality within each educational group, after the effects on inequality of urban–rural differences in the composition of educational attainments are removed. It finds that the urban sector's higher educational group contributes significantly to overall inequality. Inequality within the group increased significantly once Indonesia recovered from the financial crisis of 1998. This, together with educational expansion in urban areas, led to a conspicuous rise in urban inequality. Overall expenditure inequality has increased markedly, due not only to the rise in urban inequality but also a widening urban-rural disparity, accompanied by a population shift from the rural to the urban sector. Since more people will obtain higher education as the economy continues to develop, and more jobs requiring specialized skills become available in urban areas, urban inequality is likely to remain high. In order to mitigate urban inequality and thus overall inequality, the government needs to introduce policies that could reduce inequality among households whose heads have a tertiary education." from Authors' Abstract

Suggested Citation

  • Akita, Takahiro & Miyata, Sachiko, 2007. "Urbanization, educational expansion, and expenditures inequality in Indonesia in 1996, 1999, and 2002:," IFPRI discussion papers 728, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:fpr:ifprid:728
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    Cited by:

    1. Perdamen Sagala & Takahiro Akita & Arief Yusuf, 2014. "Urbanization and expenditure inequality in Indonesia: testing the Kuznets hypothesis with provincial panel data," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 7(3), pages 133-147, October.
    2. Takahiro Akita & Sachiko Miyata, 2013. "The roles of location and education in the distribution of economic well-being in Indonesia: hierarchical and non-hierarchical inequality decomposition analyses," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 6(3), pages 137-150, November.
    3. Andy Sumner & Peter Edward, 2013. "From Low Income, High Poverty to High-Income, No Poverty? An Optimistic View of the Long-Run Evolution of Poverty in Indonesia By International Poverty Lines, 1984–2030," Working Papers in Economics and Development Studies (WoPEDS) 201310, Department of Economics, Padjadjaran University, revised Jun 2013.
    4. Mitsuhiro Hayashi & Mitsuhiko Kataoka & Takahiro Akita, 2014. "Expenditure Inequality in Indonesia, 2008–2010: A Spatial Decomposition Analysis and the Role of Education," Asian Economic Journal, East Asian Economic Association, vol. 28(4), pages 389-411, December.
    5. Mitsuhiko Kataoka, 2015. "Interprovincial differences in the endowment and utilization in labour force by educational attainment in Indonesia's post-crisis economy," ERSA conference papers ersa15p878, European Regional Science Association.
    6. Takahiro Akita, 2017. "Educational Expansion and the Role of Education in Expenditure Inequality in Indonesia Since the 1997 Financial Crisis," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 130(3), pages 1165-1186, February.

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    Keywords

    Expenditure inequality; Urbanization; Educational expansion; Theil index; Two-stage nested inequality decomposition analysis; Public investment;

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