Urbanization, educational expansion, and expenditures inequality in Indonesia in 1996, 1999, and 2002:
"This paper considers urban-rural location and education as the main causes of expenditure inequality and attempts to examine inequality changes associated with urbanization and educational expansion in Indonesia from 1996 to 2002, using Indonesian monthly household consumption expenditure data. It introduces a hierarchical framework of inequality decomposition by population subgroups, which enables researchers to analyze inequality resulting from differences in educational attainment as well as inequality within each educational group, after the effects on inequality of urban–rural differences in the composition of educational attainments are removed. It finds that the urban sector's higher educational group contributes significantly to overall inequality. Inequality within the group increased significantly once Indonesia recovered from the financial crisis of 1998. This, together with educational expansion in urban areas, led to a conspicuous rise in urban inequality. Overall expenditure inequality has increased markedly, due not only to the rise in urban inequality but also a widening urban-rural disparity, accompanied by a population shift from the rural to the urban sector. Since more people will obtain higher education as the economy continues to develop, and more jobs requiring specialized skills become available in urban areas, urban inequality is likely to remain high. In order to mitigate urban inequality and thus overall inequality, the government needs to introduce policies that could reduce inequality among households whose heads have a tertiary education." from Authors' Abstract
|Date of creation:||2007|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: |
Web page: http://www.ifpri.org/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Anthony Shorrocks & Guanghua Wan, 2005.
"Spatial decomposition of inequality,"
Journal of Economic Geography,
Oxford University Press, vol. 5(1), pages 59-81, January.
- Jed Friedman & James Levinsohn, 2002.
"The Distributional Impacts of Indonesia's Financial Crisis on Household Welfare: A "Rapid Response" Methodology,"
World Bank Economic Review,
World Bank Group, vol. 16(3), pages 397-423, December.
- Jed Friedman & James Levinsohn, 2001. "The Distributional Impacts of Indonesia's Financial Crisis on Household Welfare: A 'Rapid Response' Methodology," Working Papers 482, Research Seminar in International Economics, University of Michigan.
- Jed Friedman & James Levinsohn, 2001. "The Distributional Impacts of Indonesia's Financial Crisis on Household Welfare: "A Rapid Response Methodology"," William Davidson Institute Working Papers Series 387, William Davidson Institute at the University of Michigan.
- Jed Friedman & James Levinsohn, 2001. "The Distributional Impacts of Indonesia's Financial Crisis on Household Welfare: A "Rapid Response" Methodology," NBER Working Papers 8564, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Knight, J B, 1976. "Explaining Income Distribution in Less Developed Countries: A Framework and an Agenda," Oxford Bulletin of Economics and Statistics, Department of Economics, University of Oxford, vol. 38(3), pages 161-77, August.
- Takahiro AKITA & Rizal Affandi LUKMAN & Yukino YAMADA, 1999. "Inequality In The Distribution Of Household Expenditures In Indonesia: A Theil Decomposition Analysis," The Developing Economies, Institute of Developing Economies, vol. 37(2), pages 197-221, 06.
- Mishra, Padmaja & Parikh, Ashok, 1992. "Household Consumer Expenditure Inequalities in India: A Decomposition Analysis," Review of Income and Wealth, International Association for Research in Income and Wealth, vol. 38(2), pages 225-36, June.
- Robinson, Sherman, 1976. "A Note on the U Hypothesis Relating Income Inequality and Economic Development," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 66(3), pages 437-40, June.
- Tsakloglou, Panos, 1993. "Aspects of inequality in Greece : Measurement, decomposition and intertemporal change: 1974, 1982," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 53-74, February.
- Takahiro Akita & Rizal Affandi Lukman, 1999. "Spatial Patterns of Expenditure Inequalities in Indonesia: 1987, 1990 and 1993," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 35(2), pages 67-90.
- Anand, Sudhir & Kanbur, S. M. R., 1993. "The Kuznets process and the inequality--development relationship," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 25-52, February.
- Takahiro Akita, 2003. "Decomposing regional income inequality in China and Indonesia using two-stage nested Theil decomposition method," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer, vol. 37(1), pages 55-77, 02.
- David Gray & Jeffrey A. Mills & Sourushe Zandvakili, 2003. "Statistical analysis of inequality with decompositions: the Canadian experience," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 28(2), pages 291-302, 04.
- Cameron, Lisa A., 2000. "Poverty and inequality in Java: examining the impact of the changing age, educational and industrial structure," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 149-180, June.
- Jenkins, Stephen P, 1995. "Accounting for Inequality Trends: Decomposition Analyses for the UK, 1971-86," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 62(245), pages 29-63, February.
- Nisha Agrawal, 1988. "Sources of Inequality Between Male and Female Wages in Australia," Australian Economic Review, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research, vol. 21(4), pages 26-36.
- Fields, Gary S, 1979. "Dec.mposing LDC Inequality," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 31(3), pages 437-59, November.
- Bourguignon, Francois, 1979. "Decomposable Income Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(4), pages 901-20, July.
- Motonishi, Taizo, 2006. "Why has income inequality in Thailand increased?: An analysis using surveys from 1975 to 1998," Japan and the World Economy, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 464-487, December.
- Glewwe, Paul, 1986. "The distribution of income in Sri Lanka in 1969-1970 and 1980-1981 : A decomposition analysis," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 255-274, December.
- Mookherjee, Dilip & Shorrocks, Anthony F, 1982. "A Decomposition Analysis of the Trend in UK Income Inequality," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 92(368), pages 886-902, December.
- Shorrocks, A F, 1980. "The Class of Additively Decomposable Inequality Measures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(3), pages 613-25, April.
- Balisacan, Arsenio M. & Fuwa, Nobuhiko, 2004. "Changes in Spatial Income Inequality in the Philippines: An Exploratory Analysis," Working Paper Series UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fpr:ifprid:728. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: ()
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.