IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

CO2 emissions in BRICS countries: what role can environmental regulation and financial development play?


  • Muhammad Awais Baloch

    (Baoji University of Arts and Sciences)

  • Danish

    (Guangdong University of Foreign Studies)


To ensure sustainability, it is necessary to achieve carbon emission mitigation goals without compromising economic growth. Assessing whether the BRICS countries, which are rapidly growing in terms of economy and carbon emissions, are moving toward achieving sustainable developing goals, through important policy measures and their implementation, is necessary. For this purpose, this study investigates the impact of environmental regulation and financial development on carbon emissions in BRICS countries from 1995 to 2016, employing the most recent data estimation technique common correlated effect means group (CCEMG). The empirical results reveal that financial development contributes to carbon emissions, whereas environmental regulations are also found to degrade the environment by stimulating carbon emissions. Important policy insights are suggested for policymakers to counter environmental challenges.

Suggested Citation

  • Muhammad Awais Baloch & Danish, 2022. "CO2 emissions in BRICS countries: what role can environmental regulation and financial development play?," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 172(1), pages 1-14, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:climat:v:172:y:2022:i:1:d:10.1007_s10584-022-03362-7
    DOI: 10.1007/s10584-022-03362-7

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to the full text of the articles in this series is restricted.

    File URL:
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Tamazian, Artur & Bhaskara Rao, B., 2010. "Do economic, financial and institutional developments matter for environmental degradation? Evidence from transitional economies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 137-145, January.
    2. Westerlund, Joakim & Edgerton, David L., 2007. "A panel bootstrap cointegration test," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 97(3), pages 185-190, December.
    3. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2021. "General diagnostic tests for cross-sectional dependence in panels," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 60(1), pages 13-50, January.
    4. Hashem Pesaran, M. & Yamagata, Takashi, 2008. "Testing slope homogeneity in large panels," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 142(1), pages 50-93, January.
    5. Charfeddine, Lanouar & Kahia, Montassar, 2019. "Impact of renewable energy consumption and financial development on CO2 emissions and economic growth in the MENA region: A panel vector autoregressive (PVAR) analysis," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 139(C), pages 198-213.
    6. Kapetanios, G. & Pesaran, M. Hashem & Yamagata, T., 2011. "Panels with non-stationary multifactor error structures," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 160(2), pages 326-348, February.
    7. Neves, Sónia Almeida & Marques, António Cardoso & Patrício, Margarida, 2020. "Determinants of CO2 emissions in European Union countries: Does environmental regulation reduce environmental pollution?," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 114-125.
    8. Chudik, Alexander & Pesaran, M. Hashem, 2015. "Common correlated effects estimation of heterogeneous dynamic panel data models with weakly exogenous regressors," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 188(2), pages 393-420.
    9. Enrico Botta & Tomasz Koźluk, 2014. "Measuring Environmental Policy Stringency in OECD Countries: A Composite Index Approach," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 1177, OECD Publishing.
    10. Baulch, Bob & Duong Do, Thuy & Le, Thai-Ha, 2018. "Constraints to the uptake of solar home systems in Ho Chi Minh City and some proposals for improvement," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 118(C), pages 245-256.
    11. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2006. "Estimation and Inference in Large Heterogeneous Panels with a Multifactor Error Structure," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 74(4), pages 967-1012, July.
    12. Acheampong, Alex O., 2019. "Modelling for insight: Does financial development improve environmental quality?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 156-179.
    13. Sadorsky, Perry, 2010. "The impact of financial development on energy consumption in emerging economies," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(5), pages 2528-2535, May.
    14. Dikau, Simon & Volz, Ulrich, 2021. "Central bank mandates, sustainability objectives and the promotion of green finance," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 184(C).
    15. Zhao, Xiaomeng & Liu, Chuanjiang & Sun, Chuanwang & Yang, Mian, 2020. "Does stringent environmental regulation lead to a carbon haven effect? Evidence from carbon-intensive industries in China," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(C).
    16. World Bank, 2020. "World Development Report 2020," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 32437, December.
    17. M. Hashem Pesaran, 2007. "A simple panel unit root test in the presence of cross-section dependence," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(2), pages 265-312.
    18. He, Yiqing & Ding, Xin & Yang, Chuchu, 2021. "Do environmental regulations and financial constraints stimulate corporate technological innovation? Evidence from China," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(C).
    19. Danish, & Baloch, Muhammad Awais & Wang, Bo, 2019. "Analyzing the role of governance in CO2 emissions mitigation: The BRICS experience," Structural Change and Economic Dynamics, Elsevier, vol. 51(C), pages 119-125.
    20. Charfeddine, Lanouar, 2017. "The impact of energy consumption and economic development on Ecological Footprint and CO2 emissions: Evidence from a Markov Switching Equilibrium Correction Model," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 355-374.
    21. World Bank, 2019. "World Development Report 2019 [Rapport sur le développement dans le monde 2019]," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 30435, December.
    22. Le, Thai-Ha & Le, Ha-Chi & Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad, 2020. "Does financial inclusion impact CO2 emissions? Evidence from Asia," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 34(C).
    23. Danish & Recep Ulucak & Salah Ud‐Din Khan & Muhammad Awais Baloch & Nan Li, 2020. "Mitigation pathways toward sustainable development: Is there any trade‐off between environmental regulation and carbon emissions reduction?," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(4), pages 813-822, July.
    24. Lv, Chengchao & Shao, Changhua & Lee, Chien-Chiang, 2021. "Green technology innovation and financial development: Do environmental regulation and innovation output matter?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(C).
    25. Pasquale Marcello Falcone, 2020. "Environmental regulation and green investments: the role of green finance," International Journal of Green Economics, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 14(2), pages 159-173.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Zeng, Li & Wong, Wing-Keung & Fu, Hu & Mahmoud, Haitham A. & Cong, Phan The & Thuy, Dinh Thi Thanh & Bach, Pham Xuan, 2024. "FinTech and sustainable financing for low carbon energy transitions: A biodiversity and natural resource perspective in BRICS economies," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 88(C).
    2. Yao, Shun & Li, Tongxin & Li, Ying, 2023. "Promoting sustainable fossil fuels resources in BRICS countries: Evaluating green policies and driving renewable energy development," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 85(PA).
    3. Umar, Muhammad & Safi, Adnan, 2023. "Do green finance and innovation matter for environmental protection? A case of OECD economies," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 119(C).

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Haiying Liu & Avik Sinha & Mehmet Akif Destek & Majed Alharthi & Muhammad Wasif Zafar, 2022. "Moving toward sustainable development of sub‐Saharan African countries: Investigating the effect of financial inclusion on environmental quality," Sustainable Development, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 30(6), pages 2015-2024, December.
    2. Murshed, Muntasir & Ahmed, Rizwan & Khudoykulov, Khurshid & Kumpamool, Chamaiporn & Alrwashdeh, Nusiebeh Nahar Falah & Mahmood, Haider, 2023. "Can enhancing financial inclusivity lower climate risks by inhibiting carbon emissions? Contextual evidence from emerging economies," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 65(C).
    3. Dong, Ziguang & Zhou, Zheng & Ananzeh, Mohammed & Hoang, Khai Nguyen & Shamansurova, Zilola & Luong, Tuan Anh, 2024. "Exploring the asymmetric association between fintech, clean energy, climate policy, natural resource conservations and environmental quality. A post-COVID perspective from Asian countries," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 88(C).
    4. Lu, Yin & Tian, Tian & Ge, Chen, 2023. "Asymmetric effects of renewable energy, fintech development, natural resources, and environmental regulations on the climate change in the post-covid era," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 85(PB).
    5. Zeqiraj, Veton & Sohag, Kazi & Soytas, Ugur, 2020. "Stock market development and low-carbon economy: The role of innovation and renewable energy," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 91(C).
    6. Quynh Chau Pham Holland & Benjamin Liu & Eduardo Roca, 2019. "International funding cost and heterogeneous mortgage interest-rate pass-through: a bank-level analysis," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 57(4), pages 1255-1289, October.
    7. Usman, Muhammad & Balsalobre-Lorente, Daniel, 2022. "Environmental concern in the era of industrialization: Can financial development, renewable energy and natural resources alleviate some load?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 162(C).
    8. Khan, Muhammad Tariq Iqbal & Yaseen, Muhammad Rizwan & Ali, Qamar, 2019. "Nexus between financial development, tourism, renewable energy, and greenhouse gas emission in high-income countries: A continent-wise analysis," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 293-310.
    9. Aytun, Cengiz & Erdogan, Sinan & Pata, Ugur Korkut & Cengiz, Orhan, 2024. "Associating environmental quality, human capital, financial development and technological innovation in 19 middle-income countries: A disaggregated ecological footprint approach," Technology in Society, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    10. Yilmaz Bayar & Marius Dan Gavriletea & Dan Constantin Danuletiu & Adina Elena Danuletiu & Emre Sakar, 2022. "Pension Funds, Insurance Companies and Stock Market Development: Evidence from Emerging Markets," Mathematics, MDPI, vol. 10(13), pages 1-13, July.
    11. Seemab Ahmad & Dilawar Khan & Róbert Magda, 2022. "Assessing the Influence of Financial Inclusion on Environmental Degradation in the ASEAN Region through the Panel PMG-ARDL Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(12), pages 1-17, June.
    12. Predrag Petrović & Mikhail M. Lobanov, 2022. "Impact of financial development on CO2 emissions: improved empirical results," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 24(5), pages 6655-6675, May.
    13. Habiba, Umme & Xinbang, Cao & Anwar, Ahsan, 2022. "Do green technology innovations, financial development, and renewable energy use help to curb carbon emissions?," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 193(C), pages 1082-1093.
    14. Shu Wu & Majed Alharthi & Weihua Yin & Qaiser Abbas & Adnan Noor Shah & Saeed ur Rahman & Jamal Khan, 2021. "The Carbon-Neutral Energy Consumption and Emission Volatility: The Causality Analysis of ASEAN Region," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(10), pages 1-14, May.
    15. Güney, Taner, 2022. "Solar energy, governance and CO2 emissions," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 184(C), pages 791-798.
    16. Zhou, Haonan & Li, Dongxin & Mustafa, Faisal & Altuntaş, Mehmet, 2022. "Natural resources volatility and South Asian economies: Evaluating the role of COVID-19," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 75(C).
    17. Muhammed BENLI, 2020. "The effect of external debt on long run economic growth in developing economies: Evidence from heterogeneous panel data models with cross sectional dependency," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania - AGER, vol. 0(3(624), A), pages 127-138, Autumn.
    18. Karim, Sitara & Appiah, Michael & Naeem, Muhammad Abubakr & Lucey, Brian M. & Li, Mingxing, 2022. "Modelling the role of institutional quality on carbon emissions in Sub-Saharan African countries," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 198(C), pages 213-221.
    19. Wei, Zhao & Huang, Lihua, 2022. "Does renewable energy matter to achieve sustainable development? Fresh evidence from ten Asian economies," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 199(C), pages 759-767.
    20. Murshed, Muntasir & Ahmed, Rizwan & Al-Tal, Raad Mahmoud & Kumpamool, Chamaiporn & Vetchagool, Witchulada & Avarado, Rafael, 2023. "Determinants of financial inclusion in South Asia: The moderating and mediating roles of internal conflict settlement," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 64(C).


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:climat:v:172:y:2022:i:1:d:10.1007_s10584-022-03362-7. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.