IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/spr/cejnor/v18y2010i2p189-220.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Designing performance incentives, an international benchmark study in the water sector

Author

Listed:
  • Kristof De Witte
  • Rui Marques

Abstract

Cross-country comparisons avoid the unsteady equilibrium in which regulators have to balance between economies of scale and a sufficient number of remaining comparable utilities. By the use of data envelopment analysis, we compare the efficiency of the drinking water sector in the Netherlands, England and Wales, Australia, Portugal and Belgium. After introducing a procedure to measure the homogeneity of an industry, robust order-m partial frontiers are used to detect outlying observations. By applying bootstrapping algorithms, bias-corrected first and second stage results are estimated. Our results suggest that incentive regulation in the sense of regulatory and benchmark incentive schemes have a significant positive effect on efficiency. By suitably adapting the conditional efficiency measures of Daraio and Simar (Advanced robust and nonparametric methods in efficiency analysis. Springer, New York 2007) to the bias corrected estimates of Simar and Wilson (Manage Sci, 44(1): 49–61, 1998), we incorporate environmental variables directly into the efficiency estimates. We firstly equalize the social, physical and institutional environment, and secondly, deduce the effect of incentive schemes on utilities as they would work under similar conditions. The analysis demonstrates that in absence of clear and structural incentives the average efficiency of the utilities falls in comparison with utilities which are encouraged by incentives. Copyright The Author(s) 2010

Suggested Citation

  • Kristof De Witte & Rui Marques, 2010. "Designing performance incentives, an international benchmark study in the water sector," Central European Journal of Operations Research, Springer;Slovak Society for Operations Research;Hungarian Operational Research Society;Czech Society for Operations Research;Österr. Gesellschaft für Operations Research (ÖGOR);Slovenian Society Informatika - Section for Operational Research;Croatian Operational Research Society, vol. 18(2), pages 189-220, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:cejnor:v:18:y:2010:i:2:p:189-220
    DOI: 10.1007/s10100-009-0108-0
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1007/s10100-009-0108-0
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    File URL: https://libkey.io/10.1007/s10100-009-0108-0?utm_source=ideas
    LibKey link: if access is restricted and if your library uses this service, LibKey will redirect you to where you can use your library subscription to access this item
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Léopold Simar & Paul Wilson, 2000. "Statistical Inference in Nonparametric Frontier Models: The State of the Art," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 49-78, January.
    2. Jean-Paul Chavas & Ragan Petrie & Michael Roth, 2005. "Farm Household Production Efficiency: Evidence from The Gambia," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 87(1), pages 160-179.
    3. Per Andersen & Niels Christian Petersen, 1993. "A Procedure for Ranking Efficient Units in Data Envelopment Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 39(10), pages 1261-1264, October.
    4. Antonio Estache & MartÌn A. Rossi & Christian A. Ruzzier, 2004. "The Case for International Coordination of Electricity Regulation: Evidence from the Measurement of Efficiency in South America," Journal of Regulatory Economics, Springer, vol. 25(3), pages 271-295, May.
    5. W. Alexander & Alfred Haug & Mohammad Jaforullah, 2010. "A two-stage double-bootstrap data envelopment analysis of efficiency differences of New Zealand secondary schools," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 34(2), pages 99-110, October.
    6. Cinzia Daraio & Léopold Simar, 2005. "Introducing Environmental Variables in Nonparametric Frontier Models: a Probabilistic Approach," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 24(1), pages 93-121, September.
    7. Charnes, A. & Cooper, W. W. & Rhodes, E., 1978. "Measuring the efficiency of decision making units," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 2(6), pages 429-444, November.
    8. Yun Zhang & Robert Bartels, 1998. "The Effect of Sample Size on the Mean Efficiency in DEA with an Application to Electricity Distribution in Australia, Sweden and New Zealand," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 187-204, March.
    9. Simar, Leopold & Wilson, Paul W., 2007. "Estimation and inference in two-stage, semi-parametric models of production processes," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 136(1), pages 31-64, January.
    10. Byrnes, Patricia & Grosskopf, Shawna & Hayes, Kathy, 1986. "Efficiency and Ownership: Further Evidence," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 68(2), pages 337-341, May.
    11. Tupper, Henrique Cesar & Resende, Marcelo, 2004. "Efficiency and regulatory issues in the Brazilian water and sewage sector: an empirical study," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 12(1), pages 29-40, March.
    12. Léopold Simar & Paul W. Wilson, 1998. "Sensitivity Analysis of Efficiency Scores: How to Bootstrap in Nonparametric Frontier Models," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(1), pages 49-61, January.
    13. Jean-Jacques Laffont & Jean Tirole, 1993. "A Theory of Incentives in Procurement and Regulation," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262121743.
    14. Wilson, Paul W, 1993. "Detecting Outliers in Deterministic Nonparametric Frontier Models with Multiple Outputs," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 11(3), pages 319-323, July.
    15. Léopold Simar, 2003. "Detecting Outliers in Frontier Models: A Simple Approach," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 20(3), pages 391-424, November.
    16. Tim Coelli & Sanzidur Rahman & Colin Thirtle, 2002. "Technical, Allocative, Cost and Scale Efficiencies in Bangladesh Rice Cultivation: A Non‐parametric Approach," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(3), pages 607-626, November.
    17. Kittelsen, S.A.C., 1993. "Stepwise DEA; Choosing Variables for Measuring Technical Efficiency in Norwegian Electricity Distribution," Memorandum 06/1993, Oslo University, Department of Economics.
    18. Marques, Rui Cunha, 2006. "A yardstick competition model for Portuguese water and sewerage services regulation," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(3), pages 175-184, September.
    19. Charnes, A. & Cooper, W. W. & Golany, B. & Seiford, L. & Stutz, J., 1985. "Foundations of data envelopment analysis for Pareto-Koopmans efficient empirical production functions," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1-2), pages 91-107.
    20. R. D. Banker & A. Charnes & W. W. Cooper, 1984. "Some Models for Estimating Technical and Scale Inefficiencies in Data Envelopment Analysis," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 30(9), pages 1078-1092, September.
    21. Aida, Kazuo & Cooper, William W. & Pastor, Jésus T. & Sueyoshi, Toshiyuki, 1998. "Evaluating Water Supply Services in Japan with RAM: a Range-adjusted Measure of Inefficiency," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 26(2), pages 207-232, April.
    22. Cazals, Catherine & Florens, Jean-Pierre & Simar, Leopold, 2002. "Nonparametric frontier estimation: a robust approach," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 106(1), pages 1-25, January.
    23. Jamasb, T. & Pollitt, M., 2000. "Benchmarking and regulation: international electricity experience," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 9(3), pages 107-130, September.
    24. Anwandter, Lars & Ozuna, Teofilo Jr., 2002. "Can public sector reforms improve the efficiency of public water utilities?," Environment and Development Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 7(4), pages 687-700, October.
    25. Francisco González Gómez & Miguel Angel García Rubio, 2008. "Efficiency in the management of urban water services. What have we learned after four decades of research?," Hacienda Pública Española / Review of Public Economics, IEF, vol. 185(2), pages 39-67, July.
    26. Cubbin, John & Tzanidakis, George, 1998. "Regression versus data envelopment analysis for efficiency measurement: an application to the England and Wales regulated water industry," Utilities Policy, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 75-85, June.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Emrouznejad, Ali & De Witte, Kristof, 2010. "COOPER-framework: A unified process for non-parametric projects," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 207(3), pages 1573-1586, December.
    2. Kristof Witte & Rui Marques, 2010. "Influential observations in frontier models, a robust non-oriented approach to the water sector," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 181(1), pages 377-392, December.
    3. Léopold Simar & Paul W. Wilson, 2015. "Statistical Approaches for Non-parametric Frontier Models: A Guided Tour," International Statistical Review, International Statistical Institute, vol. 83(1), pages 77-110, April.
    4. Bernardino Benito & José Solana & María-Rocío Moreno, 2014. "Explaining efficiency in municipal services providers," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 42(3), pages 225-239, December.
    5. Pontus Mattsson & Jonas Månsson & Christian Andersson & Fredrik Bonander, 2018. "A bootstrapped Malmquist index applied to Swedish district courts," European Journal of Law and Economics, Springer, vol. 46(1), pages 109-139, August.
    6. Kuosmanen, Timo & Post, Thierry & Scholtes, Stefan, 2007. "Non-parametric tests of productive efficiency with errors-in-variables," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 136(1), pages 131-162, January.
    7. Wheelock, David C. & Wilson, Paul W., 2008. "Non-parametric, unconditional quantile estimation for efficiency analysis with an application to Federal Reserve check processing operations," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 145(1-2), pages 209-225, July.
    8. Isabel Narbón-Perpiñá & Kristof De Witte, 2016. "Local governments’ efficiency: A systematic literature review – Part I," Working Papers 2016/20, Economics Department, Universitat Jaume I, Castellón (Spain).
    9. Endre Bjoerndal & Mette Bjoerndal & Astrid Cullmann & Maria Nieswand, 2016. "Finding the Right Yardstick: Regulation under Heterogeneous Environments," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1555, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    10. Bampatsou, Christina & Halkos, George, 2018. "Dynamics of productivity taking into consideration the impact of energy consumption and environmental degradation," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 276-283.
    11. Rita Bastião & Nuno de Sousa Pereira, 2020. "Performance in the Delivery of Primary Health Care Services: A Longitudinal Analysis," CEF.UP Working Papers 2002, Universidade do Porto, Faculdade de Economia do Porto.
    12. Bjørndal, Endre & Bjørndal, Mette & Cullmann, Astrid & Nieswand, Maria, 2018. "Finding the right yardstick: Regulation of electricity networks under heterogeneous environments," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 265(2), pages 710-722.
    13. Marcel Clermont & Julia Schaefer, 2019. "Identification of Outliers in Data Envelopment Analysis," Schmalenbach Business Review, Springer;Schmalenbach-Gesellschaft, vol. 71(4), pages 475-496, October.
    14. Agrell, Per J. & Niknazar, Pooria, 2014. "Structural and behavioral robustness in applied best-practice regulation," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 48(1), pages 89-103.
    15. Lampe, Hannes W. & Hilgers, Dennis, 2015. "Trajectories of efficiency measurement: A bibliometric analysis of DEA and SFA," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 240(1), pages 1-21.
    16. Franz R. Hahn, 2007. "Determinants of Bank Efficiency in Europe. Assessing Bank Performance Across Markets," WIFO Studies, WIFO, number 31499, July.
    17. O’Loughlin, Caitlin & Simar, Léopold & Wilson, Paul, 2021. "Methodologies for assessing government efficiency," LIDAM Discussion Papers ISBA 2021002, Université catholique de Louvain, Institute of Statistics, Biostatistics and Actuarial Sciences (ISBA).
    18. Michael Zschille, 2014. "Nonparametric measures of returns to scale: an application to German water supply," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 47(3), pages 1029-1053, November.
    19. Santos, Joana & Simões, Pedro & Costa, Álvaro & Cunha Marques, Rui, 2010. "Efficiency of the Portuguese metros. is it different from other European metros?," MPRA Paper 34904, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. José Lorenzo & Isabel Sánchez, 2007. "Efficiency evaluation in municipal services: an application to the street lighting service in Spain," Journal of Productivity Analysis, Springer, vol. 27(3), pages 149-162, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Data envelopment analysis; Bootstrapping; Incentive scheme; Water industry; Efficiency measurement; C14; L51; L95; C61;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • C14 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Semiparametric and Nonparametric Methods: General
    • L51 - Industrial Organization - - Regulation and Industrial Policy - - - Economics of Regulation
    • L95 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Gas Utilities; Pipelines; Water Utilities
    • C61 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling - - - Optimization Techniques; Programming Models; Dynamic Analysis

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:spr:cejnor:v:18:y:2010:i:2:p:189-220. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Sonal Shukla or Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.