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Stratégies de recherche, contraintes spatiales et hétérogénéité des transitions vers l’emploi : estimation économétrique d’un modèle structurel de recherche

  • Cavaco, Sandra

    (GATE (Groupe d’Analyse et de Théorie Économique))

  • Lesueur, Jean-Yves

    (GATE (Groupe d’Analyse et de Théorie Économique))

  • Sabatier, Mareva

    (IREGE (Institut de Recherche en Économie et Gestion))

  • Lesueur, Jean-Yves

This paper provides new developments in job search theory, incorporating a duality in search strategies which compose the offer rate. Two strategies are modelled. A first one, called passive strategy, consists in searching exclusively in the spatial area of the public employment agency. The alternative strategy allows to extend search area, using other media, like networks or advertisements. Introducing this duality leads us to ambiguous effects of search strategies on the theoretical exit rate. A micro-econometric estimation allows us to overcome this difficulty. A two-step method is chosen in order to, first, study the strategies’ selection rule and, second, to take into account multiple destinations after unemployment and possible unobserved heterogeneity in the duration model. Results highlight the selectivity of the search strategies’ choice, in particular the role of spatial constraints. Besides, they conclude to discriminate impacts of job search strategies on exit rates, according to the job found. Dans cet article, deux stratégies de recherche d’emploi concurrentes sont introduites comme facteurs explicatifs du taux de sortie du chômage. Le modèle de prospection en équilibre partiel construit oppose une première stratégie consistant à limiter la zone de recherche à la zone de compétence de l’agence publique pour l’emploi à une stratégie alternative, plus coûteuse, qui permet, à travers la mobilisation des procédures marchandes et du réseau social, d’élargir l’horizon spatial de la recherche. L’introduction de cette dualité des stratégies de recherche dans le cadre d’un modèle de recherche à environnement stationnaire fait apparaître à l’équilibre des effets théoriques ambigus sur la durée d’accès à l’emploi. L’estimation économétrique de la fonction de vraisemblance associée à l’expression du taux de sortie du chômage vise à lever cette ambiguité. Réalisée en deux étapes afin de contrôler la sélectivité du choix des stratégies de prospection, notamment l’effet des contraintes spatiales, l’estimation économétrique des taux de sortie du chômage contrôle également l’hétérogénéité des transitions individuelles vers l’emploi et la présence potentielle d’hétérogénéité inobservable. Les résultats économétriques concluent alors à l’endogénéité des stratégies de prospection et à leur influence discriminante sur les durées d’accès aux différents types emplois.

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Article provided by Société Canadienne de Science Economique in its journal L'Actualité économique.

Volume (Year): 80 (2004)
Issue (Month): 2 (Juin-Septembre)
Pages: 439-464

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Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:80:y:2004:i:2:p:439-464
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  1. Anne Sérandon & Denis Fougère & Liliane Bonnal, 1994. "L'impact des dispositifs d'emploi sur le devenir des jeunes chômeurs : une évaluation économétrique sur données longitudinales," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 115(4), pages 1-28.
  2. Adnett, N J, 1987. "State Employment Agencies and Labour Market Efficiency," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(3), pages 183-96, September.
  3. Dickens, Richard & Machin, Stephen & Manning, Alan, 1998. "Estimating the effect of minimum wages on employment from the distribution of wages: A critical view," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 109-134, June.
  4. Brigitte Dormont & Denis Fougère & Ana Prieto, 2001. "L'effet de l'allocation unique dégressive sur la reprise d'emploi," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 343(1), pages 3-28.
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  7. Holzer Harry J. & Ihlanfeldt Keith R. & Sjoquist David L., 1994. "Work, Search, and Travel among White and Black Youth," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 320-345, May.
  8. Rogers, Cynthia L., 1997. "Job Search and Unemployment Duration: Implications for the Spatial Mismatch Hypothesis," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(1), pages 109-132, July.
  9. Bruce D. Meyer, 1995. "Lessons from the U.S. Unemployment Insurance Experiments," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 33(1), pages 91-131, March.
  10. Rouwendal, Jan, 1999. "Spatial job search and commuting distances," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 491-517, July.
  11. Pascale Bessy-Pietri, 2000. "Les formes récentes de la croissance urbaine," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 336(1), pages 35-52.
  12. van den Berg, Gerard J & Gorter, Cees, 1997. "Job Search and Commuting Time," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics, American Statistical Association, vol. 15(2), pages 269-81, April.
  13. Kenneth Burdett & Dale T. Mortensen, 1977. "Labor Supply Under Uncertainty," Discussion Papers 297, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
  14. Nickell, Stephen, 1998. "Unemployment: Questions and Some Answers," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 108(448), pages 802-16, May.
  15. Thomas Le Jeannic, 1996. "Une nouvelle approche territoriale de la ville," Économie et Statistique, Programme National Persée, vol. 294(1), pages 25-45.
  16. Stephen Nickell, 1997. "Unemployment and Labor Market Rigidities: Europe versus North America," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 11(3), pages 55-74, Summer.
  17. Han, Aaron & Hausman, Jerry A, 1990. "Flexible Parametric Estimation of Duration and Competing Risk Models," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 5(1), pages 1-28, January-M.
  18. White, Halbert, 1982. "Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Misspecified Models," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 50(1), pages 1-25, January.
  19. Heckman, James J. & Robb, Richard Jr., 1985. "Alternative methods for evaluating the impact of interventions : An overview," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 30(1-2), pages 239-267.
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