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L'internationalisation des entreprises : une analyse microéconomique de la mondialisation

  • Lionel Fontagné
  • Matthieu Crozet

L'accroissement des échanges internationaux de biens, et à un moindre degré de services, est sans aucun doute l'un des bouleversements majeurs qui ont marqué l'économie mondiale au cours des dernières décennies. Le ratio des échanges internationaux de biens et services au PIB mondial, tel qu'enregistré par les balances de paiements, dépasse aujourd'hui nettement les 30 %, alors qu'il était inférieur à 13 % au début des années 1970. Encore s'agit-il d'une vision restrictive du phénomène, notamment dans la mesure où la production et la vente sur place des filiales à l'étranger n'est pas comptabilisée en balance des paiements. Ainsi, la mondialisation est un phénomène macroéconomique si visible qu'on l'imagine partout, et s'imposant à tous. Or, les données microéconomiques renvoient une image plus nuancée de la réalité. L'analyse de données microéconomiques de commerce international fait ressortir quelques régularités statistiques originales : dans tous les pays du monde, développés ou émergents, la proportion d'entreprises directement engagées dans une relation internationale est très fortement minoritaire. Elle dépasse rarement les 20 %. De plus, la plupart des exportateurs n'ont qu'une présence extrêmement limitée sur les marchés mondiaux, en n'étant actifs que sur quelques marchés, voisins de leur pays d'origine (plus de 40 % des exportateurs français, par exemple, ne desservent qu'une seule destination).

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Economie et statistique.

Volume (Year): 435 (2010)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 3-12

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2010_num_435_1_9574
Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.2010.9574
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