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L'internationalisation des entreprises : une analyse microéconomique de la mondialisation

  • Matthieu Crozet
  • Lionel Fontagné

L'accroissement des échanges internationaux de biens, et à un moindre degré de services, est sans aucun doute l'un des bouleversements majeurs qui ont marqué l'économie mondiale au cours des dernières décennies. Le ratio des échanges internationaux de biens et services au PIB mondial, tel qu'enregistré par les balances de paiements, dépasse aujourd'hui nettement les 30 %, alors qu'il était inférieur à 13 % au début des années 1970. Encore s'agit-il d'une vision restrictive du phénomène, notamment dans la mesure où la production et la vente sur place des filiales à l'étranger n'est pas comptabilisée en balance des paiements. Ainsi, la mondialisation est un phénomène macroéconomique si visible qu'on l'imagine partout, et s'imposant à tous. Or, les données microéconomiques renvoient une image plus nuancée de la réalité. L'analyse de données microéconomiques de commerce international fait ressortir quelques régularités statistiques originales : dans tous les pays du monde, développés ou émergents, la proportion d'entreprises directement engagées dans une relation internationale est très fortement minoritaire. Elle dépasse rarement les 20 %. De plus, la plupart des exportateurs n'ont qu'une présence extrêmement limitée sur les marchés mondiaux, en n'étant actifs que sur quelques marchés, voisins de leur pays d'origine (plus de 40 % des exportateurs français, par exemple, ne desservent qu'une seule destination).

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File URL: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.3406/estat.2010.9574
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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Economie et statistique.

Volume (Year): 435 (2010)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 3-12

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Handle: RePEc:prs:ecstat:estat_0336-1454_2010_num_435_1_9574
Note: DOI:10.3406/estat.2010.9574
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.persee.fr/collection/estat

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  2. Raghuram G. Rajan & Luigi Zingales, . "Financial Dependence and Growth," CRSP working papers 344, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
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  6. Antoine Berthou & Lionel Fontagné, 2008. "The Euro Effects on the Firm and Product-Level Trade Margins: Evidence from France," Working Papers 2008-21, CEPII research center.
  7. Marc J. Melitz & Gianmarco I.P. Ottaviano, 2005. "Market Size, Trade, and Productivity," NBER Working Papers 11393, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  8. Carsten Eckel & J. Peter Neary, 2006. "Multi-product firms and flexible manufacturing in the global economy," Working Papers 200608, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
  9. Mathias Thoenig & Thierry Verdier, 2003. "A Theory of Defensive Skill-Biased Innovation and Globalization," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(3), pages 709-728, June.
  10. James Brander & Paul Krugman, 1980. "A "Reciprocal Dumping" Model of International Trade," Working Papers 405, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  11. Marc J. Melitz, 2003. "The Impact of Trade on Intra-Industry Reallocations and Aggregate Industry Productivity," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 71(6), pages 1695-1725, November.
  12. Jean-Charles Bricongne & Lionel Fontagné & Guillaume Gaulier & Daria Taglioni & Vincent Vicard, 2012. "Firms and the global crisis: French exports in the turmoil," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-01299846, HAL.
  13. repec:hrv:faseco:4784029 is not listed on IDEAS
  14. OTTAVIANO, Gianmarco & THISSE, Jacques-François, 1999. "Agglomeration and trade revisited," CORE Discussion Papers 1999041, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
  15. Brainard, S Lael, 1997. "An Empirical Assessment of the Proximity-Concentration Trade-off between Multinational Sales and Trade," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 520-44, September.
  16. Montagna, Catia, 1995. "Monopolistic Competition with Firm-Specific Costs," Oxford Economic Papers, Oxford University Press, vol. 47(2), pages 318-28, April.
  17. Fabio Ghironi & Marc J. Melitz, 2005. "International Trade and Macroeconomic Dynamics with Heterogeneous Firms," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 120(3), pages 865-915.
  18. Pol Antras & Elhanan Helpman, 2003. "Global Sourcing," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 2005, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
  19. Lionel Fontagné & Pamina Koenig & Florian Mayneris & Sandra Poncet, 2010. "Clustering the Winners: the French Policy of Competitiveness Clusters," Working Papers 2010-18, CEPII research center.
  20. James Brander, 1980. "Intra-Industry Trade in Identical Commodities," Working Papers 380, Queen's University, Department of Economics.
  21. Yeaple, Stephen & Helpman, Elhanan & Melitz, Marc, 2004. "Export versus FDI with Heterogeneous Firms," Scholarly Articles 3229098, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  22. Lionel Fontagné & Guillaume Gaulier & Soledad Zignago, 2008. "Specialization across varieties and North-South competition," Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne (Post-Print and Working Papers) hal-00270494, HAL.
  23. Koenig, Pamina, 2009. "Agglomeration and the export decisions of French firms," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(3), pages 186-195, November.
  24. Amiti, Mary & Weinstein, David E., 2009. "Exports and Financial Shocks," CEPR Discussion Papers 7590, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
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