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Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009: The long-term effects of foreign direct investment

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  • Dirk H M Akkermans

Abstract

Aim of the paper: The paper aims at describing and explaining net profit flows per country for the period 1980–2009. Net profit flows result from Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) stock and profit repatriation: inward stock creating a profit outflow and outward FDI stock a profit inflow. Profit flows, especially ‘normal’ ones are not commonly researched. Theoretical background: According to world-system theory, countries are part of a system characterised by a core, semi-periphery and periphery, as shown by network analyses of trade relations. Network analyses based on ownership relations of TransNational Corporations (TNCs) show that the top 50 firms that control about 40% of the world economy are almost exclusively located in core countries. So, we may expect a hierarchy in net profit flows with core countries on top and the periphery at the bottom. FDI outflows from the core countries especially rose in the 1990s, so we may expect that the difference has grown in time. Data and results: A dataset on 'net profit flow' per country is developed. There are diverging developments in net profit flows since the 1980s, as expected: ever more positive for core countries, negative and ever lower for semi-peripheral and peripheral countries, in particular from the 1990s onwards. A fixed effects quantile regression using publicly available data confirms the prediction that peripheral countries share a unique characteristic: their outward investments do not have a positive influence on net profit flow as is the case with semi-peripheral and core countries. The most probable explanation is that peripheral outward investments are indirectly owned by firms located in core and semi-peripheral countries, so all peripheral profit inflows end up in those countries.

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  • Dirk H M Akkermans, 2017. "Net profit flow per country from 1980 to 2009: The long-term effects of foreign direct investment," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 12(6), pages 1-28, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:plo:pone00:0179244
    DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179244
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    2. Zélity, Balázs, 2022. "The welfare effects of FDI: A quantitative analysis," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 293-320.
    3. Boris Begović & Dušan Popović, 2019. "Merger Control and Economic Growth of LDCs: Some Observations and Recommendations," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 54(2), pages 381-408, March.
    4. Joseph P. Joyce, 2021. "The sources of international investment income in emerging market economies," Review of International Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 29(3), pages 606-625, August.
    5. Gulbis Ivo, 2018. "Foreign Direct Investment and Special Economic Zones in Latvia," Baltic Journal of Real Estate Economics and Construction Management, Sciendo, vol. 6(1), pages 240-252, December.
    6. Galina Besstremyannaya & Sergei Golovan, 2019. "Reconsideration of a simple approach to quantile regression for panel data: a comment on the Canay (2011) fixed effects estimator," Working Papers w0249, Center for Economic and Financial Research (CEFIR).
    7. M Belén Salas & David Alaminos & Manuel Angel Fernández & Francisco López-Valverde, 2020. "A global prediction model for sudden stops of capital flows using decision trees," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 15(2), pages 1-22, February.
    8. Petr Janský & Miroslav Palanský, 2019. "Estimating the scale of profit shifting and tax revenue losses related to foreign direct investment," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 26(5), pages 1048-1103, October.
    9. Galina Besstremyannaya & Sergei Golovan, 2019. "Reconsideration of a simple approach to quantile regression for panel data: a comment on the Canay (2011) fixed effects estimator," Working Papers w0249, New Economic School (NES).

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