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The Unchanging Profile of Development: A Historical Study of the Punjab 1961–2008

Author

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  • Uzma Afzal

    (Center for Research in Economics and Business (CREB), Lahore School of Economics, Lahore)

Abstract

This paper aims to examine the spatial patterns of development in the Punjab over the past five decades. The importance of initial conditions as the driving forces of development is studied to deduce the contributing factors that provide the necessary push to break away from the low development trap. A longitudinal analysis is conducted to assist in understanding several aspects of development, such as whether the welfare status of a region has improved, worsened, or remained stagnant over time; how the regions within Punjab have performed relative to each other and what the causes for their differential performances are; and also if the urban centres have had any positive spillovers on the peripheral regions. A development index is created from a selection of indicators from three sectors: education, health, and living standards. This index serves as a proxy for the level of development and assists in making comparisons over space and time. The data is taken from the Population Census Reports, the Punjab Development Statistics, and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2007-08. From the results, a clear north-south divide within Punjab has been observed, such that the northern and north-central districts consistently display higher development levels in comparison with the southern and western districts. The socioeconomic conditions prevailing in 1961 seem to persist even today. There is a need to formulate well-targeted strategic and financial policies at the district level that can thrust the districts forward and accelerate the lagging development process.

Suggested Citation

  • Uzma Afzal, 2010. "The Unchanging Profile of Development: A Historical Study of the Punjab 1961–2008," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 49(4), pages 841-862.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:journl:v:49:y:2010:i:4:p:841-862
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    File URL: http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/PDR/2010/Volume4/841-862.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Nathan Nunn, 2009. "The Importance of History for Economic Development," Annual Review of Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 1(1), pages 65-92, May.
    2. Daron Acemoglu & Simon Johnson & James A. Robinson, 2001. "The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 91(5), pages 1369-1401, December.
    3. Nunn, Nathan, 2007. "Historical legacies: A model linking Africa's past to its current underdevelopment," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 157-175, May.
    4. Olsson, Ola & Hibbs, Douglas Jr., 2005. "Biogeography and long-run economic development," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 49(4), pages 909-938, May.
    5. Haroon Jamal & Amir Jahan Khan, 2003. "The Changing Profile of Regional Inequality," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 42(2), pages 113-123.
    6. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1998. "Law and Finance," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 106(6), pages 1113-1155, December.
    7. Ali Cheema & Lyyla Khalid & Manasa Patnam, 2008. "The Geography of Poverty: Evidence from the Punjab," Lahore Journal of Economics, Department of Economics, The Lahore School of Economics, vol. 13(Special E), pages 163-188, September.
    8. Adelman, Irma & Dalton, George, 1971. "A Factor Analysis of Modernisation in Village India," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 81(323), pages 563-579, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rashida Haq & Azhar Ali, 2014. "Development Disparities and Peculiarities: An Empirical Investigation," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 115(2), pages 715-729, January.
    2. Awan, Masood Sarwar & Aslam, Muhammad Amir & Waqas, Muhammad, 2012. "Social Development Disparities among Districts of Punjab," MPRA Paper 36846, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Human Development; Regional History;

    JEL classification:

    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • N90 - Economic History - - Regional and Urban History - - - General, International, or Comparative
    • N30 - Economic History - - Labor and Consumers, Demography, Education, Health, Welfare, Income, Wealth, Religion, and Philanthropy - - - General, International, or Comparative

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