IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/kap/sbusec/v54y2020i1d10.1007_s11187-018-0080-y.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Entry and exit of small self-employed businesses in Korea’s service industries

Author

Listed:
  • Nakil Sung

    () (University of Seoul)

  • Jaekyung Kim

    () (University of Seoul)

Abstract

This study examines the effect of unemployment on the entry of small self-employed businesses (SSBs) in Korea’s service industries and assesses whether the excess entry of SSBs has resulted in their excess exit. Twelve service industries that are frequently regarded as being SSB intensive in Korea are chosen. The Hausman–Taylor model is applied to Korean regional panel data for the period 2006–2014. The empirical results indicate that the relationship between unemployment and SSB formation varies across the sample industries. In particular, the unemployment-push (pull) hypothesis is confirmed in three (six) industries. Additionally, the results show that an increase in the number of existing businesses in the previous year, partly as a result of increased entries, has increased the number of closed SSBs. On the basis of these results, this study assesses the Korean government’s SSB policies and suggests several policy recommendations.

Suggested Citation

  • Nakil Sung & Jaekyung Kim, 2020. "Entry and exit of small self-employed businesses in Korea’s service industries," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 54(1), pages 303-322, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:54:y:2020:i:1:d:10.1007_s11187-018-0080-y
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-018-0080-y
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://link.springer.com/10.1007/s11187-018-0080-y
    File Function: Abstract
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Zoltan Acs & Catherine Armington, 2004. "Employment Growth and Entrepreneurial Activity in Cities," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 911-927.
    2. Mathew L. A. Hayward & Dean A. Shepherd & Dale Griffin, 2006. "A Hubris Theory of Entrepreneurship," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 52(2), pages 160-172, February.
    3. Martin Carree, 2002. "Does Unemployment Affect the Number of Establishments? A Regional Analysis for US States," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(4), pages 389-398.
    4. Blanchflower, David G., 2000. "Self-employment in OECD countries," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 471-505, September.
    5. Erik Hurst & Benjamin Wild Pugsley, 2011. "What Do Small Businesses Do?," Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Economic Studies Program, The Brookings Institution, vol. 42(2 (Fall)), pages 73-142.
    6. Enrico Santarelli & Martin Carree & Ingrid Verheul, 2009. "Unemployment and Firm Entry and Exit: An Update on a Controversial Relationship," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(8), pages 1061-1073.
    7. Zoltan Acs & David Storey, 2004. "Introduction: Entrepreneurship and Economic Development," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 871-877.
    8. Thurik, A. Roy & Carree, Martin A. & van Stel, André & Audretsch, David B., 2008. "Does self-employment reduce unemployment?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 23(6), pages 673-686, November.
    9. Blanchflower, David G & Oswald, Andrew J, 1998. "What Makes an Entrepreneur?," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 26-60, January.
    10. Su-wan Wang, 2006. "Determinants of New Firm Formation in Taiwan," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 27(4), pages 313-321, December.
    11. Marco Caliendo & Frank Fossen & Alexander Kritikos, 2014. "Personality characteristics and the decisions to become and stay self-employed," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 42(4), pages 787-814, April.
    12. Michael Fritsch & Pamela Mueller & Antje Weyh, 2005. "Direct and indirect effects of new business formation on regional employment," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(9), pages 545-548.
    13. Nadia Simoes & Nuno Crespo & Sandrina B. Moreira, 2016. "Individual Determinants Of Self-Employment Entry: What Do We Really Know?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(4), pages 783-806, September.
    14. Gudmundsson, Sveinn Vidar & Lechner, Christian, 2013. "Cognitive biases, organization, and entrepreneurial firm survival," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 278-294.
    15. Ritsila, Jari & Tervo, Hannu, 2002. "Effects of Unemployment on New Firm Formation: Micro-level Panel Data Evidence from Finland," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 19(1), pages 31-40, August.
    16. Scott Shane, 2009. "Why encouraging more people to become entrepreneurs is bad public policy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 141-149, August.
    17. Fotopoulos, Georgios & Louri, Helen, 2000. "Location and Survival of New Entry," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 14(4), pages 311-321, June.
    18. Roll, Richard, 1986. "The Hubris Hypothesis of Corporate Takeovers," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 59(2), pages 197-216, April.
    19. Simon, Mark & Shrader, Rodney C., 2012. "Entrepreneurial actions and optimistic overconfidence: The role of motivated reasoning in new product introductions," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 291-309.
    20. Hannu Tervo, 2006. "Regional unemployment, self-employment and family background," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(9), pages 1055-1062.
    21. Forbes, Daniel P., 2005. "Are some entrepreneurs more overconfident than others?," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 20(5), pages 623-640, September.
    22. Evans, David S & Leighton, Linda S, 1989. "Some Empirical Aspects of Entrepreneurship," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 79(3), pages 519-535, June.
    23. Timothy Dunne & Mark J. Roberts & Larry Samuelson, 1988. "Patterns of Firm Entry and Exit in U.S. Manufacturing Industries," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 19(4), pages 495-515, Winter.
    24. Pfeiffer, Friedhelm & Reize, Frank, 2000. "Business start-ups by the unemployed -- an econometric analysis based on firm data," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(5), pages 629-663, September.
    25. Tobias J. Moskowitz & Annette Vissing-Jørgensen, 2002. "The Returns to Entrepreneurial Investment: A Private Equity Premium Puzzle?," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(4), pages 745-778, September.
    26. Campbell, Carl III, 1996. "The effects of state and industry economic conditions on new firm entry," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 167-183, May.
    27. Michael Fritsch & Pamela Mueller, 2004. "Effects of New Business Formation on Regional Development over Time," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(8), pages 961-975.
    28. David Audretsch & Michael Fritsch, 1999. "The Industry Component of Regional New Firm Formation Processes," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer;The Industrial Organization Society, vol. 15(3), pages 239-252, November.
    29. Lin, Zhengxi & Picot, Garnett & Compton, Janice, 2000. "The Entry and Exit Dynamics of Self-Employment in Canada," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 105-125, September.
    30. Baron, Robert A., 1998. "Cognitive mechanisms in entrepreneurship: why and when enterpreneurs think differently than other people," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 13(4), pages 275-294, July.
    31. Reynolds, Paul D & Miller, Brenda & Maki, Wilbur R, 1995. "Explaining Regional Variation in Business Births and Deaths: U.S. 1976-88," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 7(5), pages 389-407, October.
    32. Dan Lovallo & Colin Camerer, 1999. "Overconfidence and Excess Entry: An Experimental Approach," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 89(1), pages 306-318, March.
    33. Carlianne Patrick & Heather Stephens & Amanda Weinstein, 2016. "Where are all the self-employed women? Push and pull factors influencing female labor market decisions," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 46(3), pages 365-390, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Self-employed business; Small business; Excess entry; Unemployment;

    JEL classification:

    • L8 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:54:y:2020:i:1:d:10.1007_s11187-018-0080-y. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Springer Nature Abstracting and Indexing). General contact details of provider: http://www.springer.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.