IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Unemployment and Firm Entry and Exit: An Update on a Controversial Relationship


  • Enrico Santarelli
  • Martin Carree
  • Ingrid Verheul


Santarelli E., Carree M. and Verheul I. Unemployment and firm entry and exit: an update on a controversial relationship, Regional Studies. The present study explores the relationship between unemployment and subsequent firm entry and exit for 103 Italian provinces for the period 1997-2003. Two models are estimated. The first model concentrates on unemployed individuals starting or closing a business in the province in which they live. The second model incorporate cross-border effects by taking into account possible start-ups by unemployed individuals from adjacent provinces. Findings show that a positive effect of unemployment on net entry is not due to a positive 'push' effect on entry, but rather to a negative effect of unemployment on firm exit. This indicates a lack of dynamics in the Italian labour market. [image omitted] Santarelli E., Carree M. et Verheul I. Le chomage et l'entree et la sortie des entreprises: une mise a jour d'un rapport controverse, Regional Studies. La presente etude cherche a examiner le rapport entre le chomage et l'entree et la sortie ulterieures des entreprises pour 103 provinces italiennes pendant la periode allant de 1997 jusqu'a 2003. On estime deux modeles. Quant au premier modele, on se concentre sur les chomeurs qui creent ou qui ferment une entreprise dans la province ou ils habitent. Pour ce qui est du deuxieme modele, on y inclut des effets transfrontaliers, en tenant compte des creations d'entreprise eventuelles par les chomeurs qui habitent les provinces limitrophes. Il s'avere que l'effet positif du chomage sur l'entree nette ne s'explique pas par un effet 'moteur' positif au moment de l'entree mais plutot par l'effet negatif du chomage sur la sortie des entreprises. Ceci indique un manque de dynamique sur le marche du travail italien. Chomage Entree et sortie des entreprises Provinces italiennes Santarelli E., Carree M. und Verheul I. Arbeitslosigkeit und Betriebsgrundungen bzw.-schliessungen: aktuelle Informationen zu einer kontroversen Beziehung, Regional Studies. In dieser Studie wird die Beziehung zwischen Arbeitslosigkeit und anschliessenden Betriebsgrundungen bzw.-schliessungen in 103 italienischen Provinzen im Zeitraum von 1997 bis 2003 untersucht. Wir stellen Schatzungen anhand von zwei Modellen auf. Im ersten Modell konzentrieren wir uns auf arbeitslose Einzelpersonen, die in der Provinz, in der sie leben, einen Betrieb grunden oder schliessen. Im zweiten Modell integrieren wir grenzubergreifende Auswirkungen, indem wir mogliche Neugrundungen durch arbeitslose Einzelpersonen aus angrenzenden Provinzen berucksichtigen. Aus den Ergebnissen geht hervor, dass eine positive Auswirkung der Arbeitslosigkeit auf die Nettozahl der Firmengrundungen nicht auf einen positiven 'Push'-Effekt auf die Betriebsgrundungen zuruckzufuhren ist, sondern vielmehr auf einen negativen Effekt der Arbeitslosigkeit auf die Betriebsschliessungen. Dies weist auf eine mangelnde Dynamik des italienischen Arbeitsmarkts hin. Arbeitslosigkeit Betriebsgrundungen und -schliessungen Italienische Provinzen Santarelli E., Carree M. y Verheul I. Desempleo y entrada y salida de empresas: actualizacion de una relacion controvertida, Regional Studies. En el presente estudio analizamos la relacion entre el desempleo y la posterior entrada y salida de empresas para 103 provincias italianas durante el periodo de 1997 a 2003. Evaluamos dos modelos. En el primer modelo nos centramos en personas desempleadas, que empiezan o cierran un negocio en la provincia en la que viven. En el segundo modelo incorporamos los efectos transfronterizos teniendo en cuenta posibles empresas emergentes por parte de personas en paro de provincias adyacentes. Los resultados indican que un efecto positivo del desempleo en la entrada neta no se debe a un efecto positivo de 'empuje' sino a un efecto negativo del desempleo al cerrar las empresas. Esto indica una falta de dinamica en el mercado laboral italiano. Desempleo Entrada y salida de empresas Provincias italianas

Suggested Citation

  • Enrico Santarelli & Martin Carree & Ingrid Verheul, 2009. "Unemployment and Firm Entry and Exit: An Update on a Controversial Relationship," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(8), pages 1061-1073.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:43:y:2009:i:8:p:1061-1073 DOI: 10.1080/00343400801968361

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Fulong Wu, 1999. "Intrametropolitan FDI firm location in Guangzhou, China A Poisson and negative binomial analysis," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 33(4), pages 535-555.
    2. Stuart S. Rosenthal & William C. Strange, 2003. "Geography, Industrial Organization, and Agglomeration," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(2), pages 377-393, May.
    3. Erickson, Rodney A. & Wasylenko, Michael, 1980. "Firm relocation and site selection in suburban municipalities," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(1), pages 69-85, July.
    4. Gilles Duranton & Diego Puga, 2000. "Diversity and Specialisation in Cities: Why, Where and When Does it Matter?," Urban Studies, Urban Studies Journal Limited, vol. 37(3), pages 533-555, March.
    5. Daan P. van Soest & Shelby Gerking & Frank G. van Oort, 2006. "Spatial Impacts Of Agglomeration Externalities," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 46(5), pages 881-899.
    6. Salvador Barrios & Holger Görg & Eric Strobl, 2006. "Multinationals' Location Choice, Agglomeration Economies, and Public Incentives," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 29(1), pages 81-107, January.
    7. Henderson, Vernon & Kuncoro, Ari & Turner, Matt, 1995. "Industrial Development in Cities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 103(5), pages 1067-1090, October.
    8. Paulo Guimaraes & Octávio Figueiredo & Douglas Woodward, 2004. "Industrial Location Modeling: Extending the Random Utility Framework," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(1), pages 1-20.
    9. Josep-Maria Arauzo-Carod, 2007. "Determinants of population and jobs at a local level," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 41(1), pages 87-104, March.
    10. Glaeser, Edward L & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 100(6), pages 1126-1152, December.
      • Edward L. Glaeser & Hedi D. Kallal & Jose A. Scheinkman & Andrei Shleifer, 1991. "Growth in Cities," NBER Working Papers 3787, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
      • Glaeser, Edward Ludwig & Kallal, Hedi D. & Scheinkman, Jose A. & Shleifer, Andrei, 1992. "Growth in Cities," Scholarly Articles 3451309, Harvard University Department of Economics.
    11. Josep Maria Arauzo Carod & Miguel C. ManjÛn AntolÌn, 2004. "Firm Size and Geographical Aggregation: An Empirical Appraisal in Industrial Location," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 22(3_4), pages 299-312, April.
    12. David Audretsch & Michael Fritsch, 2002. "Growth Regimes over Time and Space," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(2), pages 113-124.
    13. Wheaton, William C. & Lewis, Mark J., 2002. "Urban Wages and Labor Market Agglomeration," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(3), pages 542-562, May.
    14. Adelheid Holl, 2004. "Transport Infrastructure, Agglomeration Economies, and Firm Birth: Empirical Evidence from Portugal," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(4), pages 693-712.
    15. Hans Ouwersloot & Piet Rietveld, 2000. "The Geography of R&D: Tobit Analysis and a Bayesian Approach to Mapping R&D Activities in the Netherlands," Environment and Planning A, , vol. 32(9), pages 1673-1688, September.
    16. J. M. Casado-Diaz, 2000. "Local Labour Market Areas in Spain: A Case Study," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(9), pages 843-856.
    17. Holl, Adelheid, 2004. "Manufacturing location and impacts of road transport infrastructure: empirical evidence from Spain," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 341-363, May.
    18. Olga Alonso-Villar & Jose-MarIa Chamorro-Rivas & Xulia Gonzalez-Cerdeira, 2004. "Agglomeration economies in manufacturing industries: the case of Spain," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 36(18), pages 2103-2116.
    19. Rosenthal, Stuart S. & Strange, William C., 2004. "Evidence on the nature and sources of agglomeration economies," Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics,in: J. V. Henderson & J. F. Thisse (ed.), Handbook of Regional and Urban Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 49, pages 2119-2171 Elsevier.
    20. Elisabet Viladecans-Marsal, 2004. "Agglomeration economies and industrial location: city-level evidence," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 4(5), pages 565-582, November.
    21. Albert Solé-Ollé & Elisabet Viladecans-Marsal, 2004. "Central Cities as Engines of Metropolitan Area Growth," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 44(2), pages 321-350.
    22. Figueiredo, Octavio & Guimaraes, Paulo & Woodward, Douglas, 2002. "Home-field advantage: location decisions of Portuguese entrepreneurs," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 341-361, September.
    23. Stuart S. Rosenthal & William C. Strange, 2005. "The geography of entrepreneurship in the New York metropolitan area," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Dec, pages 29-53.
    24. Cletus C. Coughlin & Eran Segev, 2000. "Location Determinants of New Foreign-Owned Manufacturing Plants," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(2), pages 323-351.
    25. Deitz, Richard, 1998. "A Joint Model of Residential and Employment Location in Urban Areas," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(2), pages 197-215, September.
    26. Guimaraes, Paulo & Figueiredo, Octavio & Woodward, Douglas, 2000. "Agglomeration and the Location of Foreign Direct Investment in Portugal," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(1), pages 115-135, January.
    27. Josep Maria Arauzo Carod, 2005. "Determinants of industrial location: An application for Catalan municipalities," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 84(1), pages 105-120, March.
    28. Didier Baudewyns, 1999. "La localisation intra-urbaine des firmes: une estimation logit multinomiale," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/9157, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
    29. List, John A., 2001. "US county-level determinants of inbound FDI: evidence from a two-step modified count data model," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 19(6), pages 953-973, May.
    30. Andrzej Cieślik, 2005. "Regional characteristics and the location of foreign firms within Poland," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(8), pages 863-874.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:taf:regstd:v:43:y:2009:i:8:p:1061-1073. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Chris Longhurst). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.