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Does gender matter for job creation? Business ownership and employment growth

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  • Tessa Conroy

    (University of Wisconsin-Madison)

  • Stephan Weiler

    (Colorado State University)

Abstract

This research uses an economic growth framework to analyze the impacts of male- and female-owned firms on economic performance. To address the potential endogeneity caused by social factors that may effect both the gender composition of business owners and economic growth, we apply an instrumental variable strategy. Intriguingly, in-depth analysis yielded no evidence of positive agglomeration effects on job growth specifically from gendered measures of firm density. However, the analyses do illuminate the value of considering both the previously unexplored employer/nonemployer firm distinction as well as a gendered perspective of firm ownership in the understanding of regional growth factors. The results show that male-owned firms, particularly male-owned employer firms, have a strong, though negative, relationship to employment growth consistent with national employment trends in male-owned firms during the period of the study.

Suggested Citation

  • Tessa Conroy & Stephan Weiler, 2016. "Does gender matter for job creation? Business ownership and employment growth," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 397-419, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:47:y:2016:i:2:d:10.1007_s11187-016-9735-8
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-016-9735-8
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    4. Horbach, Jens & Jacob, Jojo, 2017. "The relevance of personal characteristics and gender diversity for (eco)-innovation activities at the firm-level : Results from a linked employer-employee database in Germany," IAB-Discussion Paper 201711, Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany].
    5. Laura Barasa, 2020. "Closing the gap: Gender and innovation," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2020-105, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    6. Schmidt, Claudia & Goetz, Stephan J. & Tian, Zheng, 2021. "Female farmers in the United States: Research needs and policy questions," Food Policy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C).
    7. Adrienne Callander & Michael E. Cummings, 2021. "Liminal spaces: A review of the art in entrepreneurship and the entrepreneurship in art," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 57(2), pages 739-754, August.
    8. Sara, Amoroso & Albert, Link, 2017. "Under the AEGIS∗ of knowledge intensive entrepreneurship: Employment growth and gender of founders among European Firms," UNCG Economics Working Papers 17-9, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, Department of Economics.
    9. Jens Horbach & Jojo Jacob, 2018. "The relevance of personal characteristics and gender diversity for (eco‐)innovation activities at the firm‐level: Results from a linked employer–employee database in Germany," Business Strategy and the Environment, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 27(7), pages 924-934, November.
    10. Pekkala Kerr, Sari & Kerr, William, 2020. "Immigrant entrepreneurship in America: Evidence from the survey of business owners 2007 & 2012," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(3).
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