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Determinants of capital structure: evidence from a major developing economy

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  • Bülent Köksal
  • Cüneyt Orman

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Abstract

A major shortcoming of capital structure studies on developing economies is that they generally restrict their analyses to large publicly-traded manufacturing firms. Consequently, we know little about the applicability of various capital structure theories to firms that are private, small, and/or outside the manufacturing industry in these economies. In this paper, we conduct a comparative test of the trade-off and pecking order theories using a comprehensive firm-level dataset that covers manufacturing, non-manufacturing, small, large, publicly-traded, and private firms in a major developing economy, Turkey. The trade-off theory provides a better description of the capital structures of all firm types than the pecking order theory. Moreover, the trade-off theory appears to be particularly suitable for understanding the financing choices of large private firms in the non-manufacturing sector and when the economic environment is relatively stable. By contrast, pecking order theory is most useful when it comes to small publicly-traded manufacturing firms, especially when the economic environment is relatively unstable. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Suggested Citation

  • Bülent Köksal & Cüneyt Orman, 2015. "Determinants of capital structure: evidence from a major developing economy," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 44(2), pages 255-282, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:sbusec:v:44:y:2015:i:2:p:255-282
    DOI: 10.1007/s11187-014-9597-x
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    Cited by:

    1. Orman, Cüneyt & Köksal, Bülent, 2017. "Debt maturity across firm types: Evidence from a major developing economy," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 30(C), pages 169-199.
    2. Cuneyt Orman & Bulent Koksal, 2015. "Structure of Debt Maturity across Firm Types," Working Papers 1521, Research and Monetary Policy Department, Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey.
    3. Oscar Briones & Melisa Chang, 2017. "Capital Structure Determinants Influence: A Comparative Study," Proceedings of International Academic Conferences 5007097, International Institute of Social and Economic Sciences.
    4. Kühnhausen, Fabian & Stieber, Harald W., 2014. "Determinants of Capital Structure in Non-Financial Companies," Discussion Papers in Economics 21167, University of Munich, Department of Economics.
    5. Wei Huang & Agyenim Boateng & Alexander Newman, 2016. "Capital structure of Chinese listed SMEs: an agency theory perspective," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 47(2), pages 535-550, August.
    6. Hidenobu Okuda & Daiju Aiba, 2018. "Determinants of Firms’ Capital Structure Decisions in Highly Dollarized Economies: Evidence from Cambodia," Working Papers 160, JICA Research Institute.
    7. repec:bis:bisifc:45-13 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Orman, Cüneyt & Bülent, Köksal, 2015. "Structure of Debt Maturity across the Firm Type Spectrum," MPRA Paper 64860, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. repec:ibn:ibrjnl:v:11:y:2018:i:4:p:65-83 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. repec:bis:bisifc:45-12 is not listed on IDEAS
    11. Zeitun, Rami & Temimi, Akram & Mimouni, Karim, 2017. "Do financial crises alter the dynamics of corporate capital structure? Evidence from GCC countries," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 21-33.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Capital structure; Non-financial firms; Pecking order theory; Trade-off theory; Turkey; G30; G32; L26;

    JEL classification:

    • G30 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - General
    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • F65 - International Economics - - Economic Impacts of Globalization - - - Finance

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