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What Do We Know About Real Estate Brokerage?

Many facets of real estate brokerage have been examined in studies appearing in the literature over the last several years. This review attempts to organize the research around six questions concerning the brokerage industry: (1) What is the nature of the market for brokerage services and how does it influence the individual firm; (2) What factors determine broker and agent compensation; (3) How does brokerage participation influence time on the market and price; (4) Is the brokerage market efficient and equitable;(5) Must brokerage firms assume greater liability; and (6) How do brokerage markets vary internationally. In examining each question, the review points out the major focus of the research and summarizes important findings. Its purpose is to identify key issues facing the brokerage industry and suggest avenues for future study.

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Article provided by American Real Estate Society in its journal Journal of Real Estate Research.

Volume (Year): 20 (2000)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 5-30

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Handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:20:n:1:2000:p:5-30
Contact details of provider: Postal: American Real Estate Society Clemson University School of Business & Behavioral Science Department of Finance 401 Sirrine Hall Clemson, SC 29634-1323
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Order Information: Postal: Diane Quarles American Real Estate Society Manager of Member Services Clemson University Box 341323 Clemson, SC 29634-1323
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  1. G. Donald Jud, 1983. "Real Estate Brokers and the Market for Residential Housing," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 11(1), pages 69-82.
  2. Michael Carney, 1982. "Costs and Pricing of Home Brokerage Services," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 10(3), pages 331-354.
  3. Buttimer, Richard J, Jr, 1998. "A Contingent Claims Analysis of Real Estate Listing Agreements," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 16(3), pages 257-67, May.
  4. Knight, John R & Sirmans, C F & Turnbull, Geoffrey K, 1994. "List Price Signaling and Buyer Behavior in the Housing Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 177-92, November.
  5. A. Ason Okoruwa & G. Donald Jud, 1995. "Buyer Satisfaction with Residential Brokerage Services," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 10(1), pages 15-22.
  6. Karl L. Guntermann & Richard L. Smith, 1988. "Licensing Requirements, Enforcement Effort and Complaints Against Real Estate Agents," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 3(2), pages 11-20.
  7. Mark G. Dotzour & Everard Moorhead & Daniel T. Winkler, 1998. "The Impact of Auctions on Residential Sales Prices in New Zealand," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 16(1), pages 57-72.
  8. Norman G. Miller, 1978. "Time on the Market and Selling Price," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 6(2), pages 164-174.
  9. Michael A. Arnold, 1992. "The Principal-Agent Relationship in Real Estate Brokerage Services," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 20(1), pages 89-106.
  10. Thomas J. Miceli, 1988. "Information Costs and the Organization of the Real Estate Brokerage Industry in the U.S. and Great Britain," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 16(2), pages 173-188.
  11. James R. Follain & Terry Lutes & David A. Meier, 1987. "Why Do Some Real Estate Salespeople Earn More Than Others?," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 2(1), pages 73-81.
  12. Joyce M. Johnson & Hugh O. Nourse & Ellen Day, 1988. "Factors Related to the Selection of a Real Estate Agency or Agent," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 3(2), pages 109-118.
  13. William C. Goolsby & Barbara J. Childs, 1988. "Brokerage Firm Competition in Real Estate Commission Rates," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 3(2), pages 79-85.
  14. James R. Frew & G. Donald Jud, 1986. "The Value of a Real Estate Franchise," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(2), pages 374-383.
  15. Glenn E. Crellin & James R. Frew & G. Donald Jud, 1988. "The Earnings of REALTORS: Some Empirical Evidence," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 3(2), pages 69-78.
  16. Michel Glower & Donald R. Haurin & Patric H. Hendershott, 1998. "Selling Time and Selling Price: The Influence of Seller Motivation," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 26(4), pages 719-740.
  17. Gene A. Marsh & Leonard V. Zumpano, 1988. "Agency Theory and the Changing Role of the Real Estate Broker: Conflicts and Possible Solutions," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 3(2), pages 151-164.
  18. Han Bin Kang & Mona J. Gardner, 1989. "Selling Price and Marketing Time in the Residential Real Estate Market," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 4(1), pages 21-35.
  19. Chunchi Wu & Peter F. Colwell, 1986. "Equilibrium of Housing and Real Estate Brokerage Markets Under Uncertainty," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(1), pages 1-23.
  20. Anglin, Paul M & Arnott, Richard, 1991. "Residential Real Estate Brokerage as a Principal-Agent Problem," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(2), pages 99-125, June.
  21. Carroll, Wayne, 1989. "Fixed-Percentage Commissions and Moral Hazard in Residential Real Estate Brokerage," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 2(4), pages 349-65, December.
  22. Maurizi, Alex, 1974. "Occupational Licensing and the Public Interest," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages 399-413, Part I, M.
  23. G. Donald Jud & Terry G. Seaks & Daniel T. Winkler, 1996. "Time on the Market: The Impact of Residential Brokerage," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 12(3), pages 447-458.
  24. Theron R. Nelson & Joseph Rabianski, 1988. "Consumer Preferences in Housing Market Analysis: An Application of Multidimensional Scaling Techniques," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 16(2), pages 138-159.
  25. James E. Larsen, 1991. "Leading Residential Real Estate Sales Agents and Market Performance," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 6(2), pages 241-249.
  26. Thomas J. Miceli, 1989. "The Optimal Duration of Real Estate Listing Contracts," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 17(3), pages 267-277.
  27. Rajiv Kalra & Kam C. Chan, 1994. "Censored Sample Bias, Macroeconomic Factors, and Time on Market of Residential Housing," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 9(2), pages 253-262.
  28. Edward A. Baryla & Leonard V. Zumpano, 1995. "Buyer Search Duration in the Residential Real Estate Market: The Role of the Real Estate Agent," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 10(1), pages 1-14.
  29. John H. Crockett, 1982. "Competition and Efficiency in Transacting: The Case of Residential Real Estate Brokerage," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 10(2), pages 209-227.
  30. Thomas J. Miceli, 1992. "The Welfare Effects of Non-Price Competition Among Real Estate Brokers," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 20(4), pages 519-532.
  31. Jud G., Donald & Winkler, Daniel T., 1994. "What Do Real Estate Brokers Do: An Examination of Excess Returns in the Housing Market," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(4), pages 283-295, December.
  32. Tirtiroglu, Dogan, 1996. "Capitalization of Brokerage Commissions: The Case of Nonlocal Buyers and Sellers," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 193-206, June.
  33. William T. Hughes, Jr., 1995. "Brokerage Firms' Characteristics and the Sale of Residential Property," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 10(1), pages 45-56.
  34. Thomas S. Zorn & James E. Larsen, 1986. "The Incentive Effects of Flat-Fee and Percentage Commissions for Real Estate Brokers," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(1), pages 24-47.
  35. James E. Larsen & Won J. Park, 1989. "Non-Uniform Percentage Brokerage Commissions and Real Estate Market Performance," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 17(4), pages 422-438.
  36. Leonard V. Zumpano & Donald L. Hooks, 1988. "The Real Estate Brokerage Market: A Critical Reevaluation," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 16(1), pages 1-16.
  37. Paul K. Asabere & Forrest E. Huffman & Seyed Mehdian, 1993. "Mispricing and Optimal Time on the Market," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 8(1), pages 149-155.
  38. Salant, Stephen W, 1991. "For Sale by Owner: When to Use a Broker and How to Price the House," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(2), pages 157-73, June.
  39. James D. Shilling & C. F. Sirmans, 1988. "The Effects of Occupational Licensing on Complaints Against Real Estate Agents," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 3(2), pages 1-9.
  40. John D. Benjamin & Peter T. Chinloy, 1995. "Technological Innovation in Real Estate Brokerage," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 10(1), pages 35-44.
  41. Jud, G Donald & Winkler, Daniel T, 1998. "The Earnings of Real Estate Salespersons and Others in the Financial Services Industry," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 17(3), pages 279-91, November.
  42. Thomas Potter & Theron R. Nelson & Susan Logan Nelson, 1991. "Product Liability Issues in Real Estate Brokerage," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 6(1), pages 87-98.
  43. Michael A. Abelson & K. Michele Kacmar & Ellen F. Jackofsky, 1990. "Factors Influencing Real Estate Brokerage Sales Staff Performance," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 5(2), pages 265-276.
  44. Colin Read, 1988. "Price Strategies for Idiosyncratic Goods-The Case of Housing," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 16(4), pages 379-395.
  45. Thomas J. Miceli, 1991. "The Multiple Listing Service, Commission Splits, and Broker Effort," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 19(4), pages 548-566.
  46. Stephen E. Roulac, 1993. "Environmental Due Diligence Information Requirements and Decision Criteria," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 8(1), pages 139-148.
  47. Linda L. Johnson & Christine Loucks, 1986. "The Effect of State Licensing Regulations on the Real Estate Brokerage Industry," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(4), pages 567-582.
  48. James R. Frew & G. Donald Jud & Willard McIntosh, 1993. "A Note on Agency Size and Brokerage Commission Splits," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 8(2), pages 287-291.
  49. David Geltner & Brian D. Kluger & Norman G. Miller, 1991. "Optimal Price and Selling Effort from the Perspectives of the Broker and Seller," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 19(1), pages 1-24.
  50. Abdullah Yavas, 1996. "Matching of Buyers and Sellers by Brokers: A Comparison of Alternative Commission Structures," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 24(1), pages 97-112.
  51. Shiawee X. Yang & Abdullah Yavas, 1995. "Bigger is not Better: Brokerage and Time on the Market," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 10(1), pages 23-34.
  52. Kevin E. Villani & John Simonson, 1982. "Real Estate Settlement Pricing: A Theoretical Framework," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 10(3), pages 249-275.
  53. G. Stacy Sirmans & Philip G. Swicegood, 1997. "Determinants of Real Estate Licensee Income," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 14(2), pages 137-154.
  54. Mincer, Jacob, 1970. "The Distribution of Labor Incomes: A Survey with Special Reference to the Human Capital Approach," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 8(1), pages 1-26, March.
  55. Hossein Samiei & Garry J. Schinasi, 1994. "Real Estate Price Inflation, Monetary Policy, and Expectations in the United States and Japan," IMF Working Papers 94/12, International Monetary Fund.
  56. Marsha L. Richins & William C. Black & C.F. Sirmans, 1987. "Strategic Orientation and Marketing Strategy: An Analysis of Residential Real Estate Brokerage Firms," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 2(2), pages 41-54.
  57. Peter Chinloy, 1988. "The Real Estate Brokerage: Commissioned Sales and Market Values," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 3(2), pages 37-51.
  58. Anglin, Paul M, 1994. "Contracts for the Sale of Residential Real Estate," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 8(3), pages 195-211, May.
  59. Linda L. Johnson & Michael J. Dotson & B.J. Dunlap, 1988. "Service Quality Determinants and Effectiveness in the Real Estate Brokerage Industry," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 3(2), pages 21-36.
  60. Bagnoli, Mark & Khanna, Naveen, 1991. "Buyers' and Sellers' Agents in the Housing Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 4(2), pages 147-56, June.
  61. Geltner, David M. & Kluger, Brian D. & Miller, Norman G., 1992. "Incentive commissions in residential real estate brokerage," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(2), pages 139-158, June.
  62. Jud, G Donald & Rogers, Ronald C & Crellin, Glenn E, 1994. "Franchising and Real Estate Brokerage," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 8(1), pages 87-93, January.
  63. Donald Haurin, 1988. "The Duration of Marketing Time of Residential Housing," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 16(4), pages 396-410.
  64. Susan Logan Nelson & Theron R. Nelson, 1995. "RESERV: An Instrument for Measuring Real Estate Brokerage Service Quality," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 10(1), pages 99-114.
  65. Peter F. Colwell & David W. Marshall, 1986. "Market Share in the Real Estate Brokerage Industry," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(4), pages 583-599.
  66. Abdullah Yavas & Shiawee Yang, 1995. "The Strategic Role of Listing Price in Marketing Real Estate: Theory and Evidence," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 23(3), pages 347-368.
  67. Leonard V. Zumpano & Harold W. Elder, 1994. "Economies of Scope and Density in the Market for Real Estate Brokerage Services," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 22(3), pages 497-513.
  68. Ferreira, Eurico J & Sirmans, G Stacy, 1989. "Selling Price, Financing Premiums, and Days on the Market," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 2(3), pages 209-22, September.
  69. Sirmans, C. F. & Turnbull, Geoffrey K., 1997. "Brokerage Pricing under Competition," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(1), pages 102-117, January.
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  71. Abdullah Yavaş, 1992. "A Simple Search and Bargaining Model of Real Estate Markets," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 20(4), pages 533-548.
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