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The Effects of Occupational Licensing on Complaints Against Real Estate Agents

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Abstract

Does licensing increase the quality of services? This is a major unresolved question in the economic analysis of occupational licensing. This paper provides the first empirical evidence on the simultaneous relationship between anticompetitive effects and minimal quality standards. Using data on real estate agents, we find that restrictions on entry improve the quality of services (by lowering complaints), but, at the same time, there appear to be significant anticompetitive side-effects.

Suggested Citation

  • James D. Shilling & C. F. Sirmans, 1988. "The Effects of Occupational Licensing on Complaints Against Real Estate Agents," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 3(2), pages 1-9.
  • Handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:3:n:2:1988:p:1-9
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Michael Carney, 1982. "Costs and Pricing of Home Brokerage Services," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 10(3), pages 331-354.
    2. Benham, Lee, 1972. "The Effect of Advertising on the Price of Eyeglasses," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 15(2), pages 337-352, October.
    3. Bartlett, Randall, 1981. "Property Rights and the Pricing of Real Estate Brokerage," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 30(1), pages 79-94, September.
    4. Chunchi Wu & Peter F. Colwell, 1986. "Equilibrium of Housing and Real Estate Brokerage Markets Under Uncertainty," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(1), pages 1-23.
    5. Arlene S. Holen, 1965. "Effects of Professional Licensing Arrangements on Interstate Labor Mobility and Resource Allocation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73, pages 492-492.
    6. Milton Friedman & Simon Kuznets, 1954. "Income from Independent Professional Practice," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number frie54-1, January.
    7. Bond, Eric W, 1982. "A Direct Test of the "Lemons" Model: The Market for Used Pickup Trucks," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(4), pages 836-840, September.
    8. Linda L. Johnson & Christine Loucks, 1986. "The Effect of State Licensing Regulations on the Real Estate Brokerage Industry," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(4), pages 567-582.
    9. Maurizi, Alex, 1974. "Occupational Licensing and the Public Interest," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages 399-413, Part I, M.
    10. Peter F. Colwell & David W. Marshall, 1986. "Market Share in the Real Estate Brokerage Industry," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(4), pages 583-599.
    11. Schwartz, Alan & Wilde, Louis L., "undated". "Intervening in Markets on the Basis of Imperfect Information: A Legal and Economic Analysis," Working Papers 235, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
    12. George A. Akerlof, 1970. "The Market for "Lemons": Quality Uncertainty and the Market Mechanism," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 84(3), pages 488-500.
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    Cited by:

    1. John D. Benjamin & G. Donald Jud & G. Stacy Sirmans, 2000. "Real Estate Brokerage and the Hosting Market: An Annotated Bibliography," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 20(1), pages 217-278.
    2. John D. Benjamin & G. Donald Jud & G. Stacy Sirmans, 2000. "What Do We Know About Real Estate Brokerage?," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 20(1), pages 5-30.
    3. Shu-Man You & Chun-Chang Lee & Ming-Hsun Tseng, 2012. "An Examination of Service Quality, Transaction Costs and Sales Ethics among Real Estate Advertising Sales Agents," International Real Estate Review, Asian Real Estate Society, vol. 15(2), pages 189-214.
    4. Dick M. Carpenter II & Lisa Knepper & Angela C. Erickson & John K. Ross, 2015. "Regulating Work: Measuring the Scope and Burden of Occupational Licensure Among Low- and Moderate-Income Occupations in the United States," Economic Affairs, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(1), pages 3-20, February.
    5. Randy I. Anderson & James R. Webb, 2000. "The Education of Real Estate Salespeople and the Value of the Firm," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 20(1), pages 143-152.
    6. Jonathan Wiley & Justin Benefield & Marcus Allen, 2014. "Cyclical Determinants of Brokerage Commission Rates," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 196-219, January.
    7. David Barker, 2008. "Ethics and Lobbying: The Case of Real Estate Brokerage," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 80(1), pages 23-35, June.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • L85 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Real Estate Services

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