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The Effects of Occupational Licensing on Complaints Against Real Estate Agents

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Abstract

Does licensing increase the quality of services? This is a major unresolved question in the economic analysis of occupational licensing. This paper provides the first empirical evidence on the simultaneous relationship between anticompetitive effects and minimal quality standards. Using data on real estate agents, we find that restrictions on entry improve the quality of services (by lowering complaints), but, at the same time, there appear to be significant anticompetitive side-effects.

Suggested Citation

  • James D. Shilling & C. F. Sirmans, 1988. "The Effects of Occupational Licensing on Complaints Against Real Estate Agents," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 3(2), pages 1-9.
  • Handle: RePEc:jre:issued:v:3:n:2:1988:p:1-9
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Michael Carney, 1982. "Costs and Pricing of Home Brokerage Services," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 10(3), pages 331-354, September.
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    5. Arlene S. Holen, 1965. "Effects of Professional Licensing Arrangements on Interstate Labor Mobility and Resource Allocation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(5), pages 492-492.
    6. Milton Friedman & Simon Kuznets, 1945. "Income from Independent Professional Practice," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number frie54-1, July.
    7. Bond, Eric W, 1982. "A Direct Test of the "Lemons" Model: The Market for Used Pickup Trucks," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 72(4), pages 836-840, September.
    8. Linda L. Johnson & Christine Loucks, 1986. "The Effect of State Licensing Regulations on the Real Estate Brokerage Industry," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(4), pages 567-582, December.
    9. Maurizi, Alex, 1974. "Occupational Licensing and the Public Interest," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(2), pages 399-413, Part I, M.
    10. Peter F. Colwell & David W. Marshall, 1986. "Market Share in the Real Estate Brokerage Industry," Real Estate Economics, American Real Estate and Urban Economics Association, vol. 14(4), pages 583-599, December.
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    Cited by:

    1. Seow Eng Ong & Davin Wang & Calvin Chua, 2023. "Disruptive Innovation and Real Estate Agency: The Disruptee Strikes Back," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 67(2), pages 287-317, August.
    2. Chung, Bobby W., 2022. "The costs and potential benefits of occupational licensing: A case of real estate license reform," Labour Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(C).
    3. John D. Benjamin & G. Donald Jud & G. Stacy Sirmans, 2000. "Real Estate Brokerage and the Hosting Market: An Annotated Bibliography," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 20(1), pages 217-278.
    4. John D. Benjamin & G. Donald Jud & G. Stacy Sirmans, 2000. "What Do We Know About Real Estate Brokerage?," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 20(1), pages 5-30.
    5. Shu-Man You & Chun-Chang Lee & Ming-Hsun Tseng, 2012. "An Examination of Service Quality, Transaction Costs and Sales Ethics among Real Estate Advertising Sales Agents," International Real Estate Review, Global Social Science Institute, vol. 15(2), pages 189-214.
    6. Dick M. Carpenter II & Lisa Knepper & Angela C. Erickson & John K. Ross, 2015. "Regulating Work: Measuring the Scope and Burden of Occupational Licensure Among Low- and Moderate-Income Occupations in the United States," Economic Affairs, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 35(1), pages 3-20, February.
    7. Lex, Christoph & Tennyson, Sharon, 2021. "EU intermediary regulation and its impact on insurance agent quality: Evidence from Germany," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(C).
    8. Randy I. Anderson & James R. Webb, 2000. "The Education of Real Estate Salespeople and the Value of the Firm," Journal of Real Estate Research, American Real Estate Society, vol. 20(1), pages 143-152.
    9. Jonathan Wiley & Justin Benefield & Marcus Allen, 2014. "Cyclical Determinants of Brokerage Commission Rates," The Journal of Real Estate Finance and Economics, Springer, vol. 48(1), pages 196-219, January.
    10. Kaja Fredriksen, 2020. "Does occupational licensing impact incomes? A replication study for the German crafts case," Journal for Labour Market Research, Springer;Institute for Employment Research/ Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), vol. 54(1), pages 1-17, December.
    11. David Barker, 2008. "Ethics and Lobbying: The Case of Real Estate Brokerage," Journal of Business Ethics, Springer, vol. 80(1), pages 23-35, June.
    12. Fredriksen, Kaja, 2018. "Does occupational licensing impact incomes? - The German crafts case," ifh Working Papers 11 (2018), Volkswirtschaftliches Institut für Mittelstand und Handwerk an der Universität Göttingen (ifh), revised 2018.

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    JEL classification:

    • L85 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Services - - - Real Estate Services

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