IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/fau/fauart/v59y2009i1p41-70.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Mapping Regional Personal Income Distribution in Western Europe: Income Per Capita and Inequality

Author

Abstract

Past studies of regional economic disparities in the EU are fundamentally based on the information provided by macroeconomic variables. This paper considers regional disparities using microeconomic data aggregated at the regional level, paying attention not only to the average, but also to the inequality levels of individual incomes within regions. It maps regional personal income distribution in Western Europe, using data from the European Community Household Panel (ECHP) data survey covering more than 100,000 individuals, for 102 regions, and over the period 1995–2000. The Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis on income per capita and inequality reveals a rich set of findings. (1) There is a strong U-shaped relationship between income per capita and inequality which is highly robust across inequality measurements. (2) 80 percent of the income inequality in Europe takes place among individuals living in the same region. (3) Regions with similar income conditions tend to cluster, not only within national borders, but also across nations. (4) There is a North-South and an urban-rural divide where northern regions and city-regions have the highest economic development, as well as the lowest levels of inequality.

Suggested Citation

  • Andrés Rodríguez-Pose & Vassilis Tselios, 2009. "Mapping Regional Personal Income Distribution in Western Europe: Income Per Capita and Inequality," Czech Journal of Economics and Finance (Finance a uver), Charles University Prague, Faculty of Social Sciences, vol. 59(1), pages 41-70, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:fau:fauart:v:59:y:2009:i:1:p:41-70
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://journal.fsv.cuni.cz/storage/1151_tselios.pdf
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Amiel,Yoram & Cowell,Frank, 1999. "Thinking about Inequality," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521466967, October.
    2. Ravallion, Martin, 1997. "Can high-inequality developing countries escape absolute poverty?," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 51-57, September.
    3. Sala-i-Martin, Xavier X., 1996. "Regional cohesion: Evidence and theories of regional growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1325-1352, June.
    4. Robert P. Haining, 1995. "Data Problems in Spatial Econometric Modeling," Advances in Spatial Science, in: Luc Anselin & Raymond J. G. M. Florax (ed.), New Directions in Spatial Econometrics, chapter 7, pages 156-171, Springer.
    5. Andrés Rodríguez‐Pose & Vassilis Tselios, 2009. "Education And Income Inequality In The Regions Of The European Union," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(3), pages 411-437, August.
    6. Durlauf, Steven N & Johnson, Paul A, 1995. "Multiple Regimes and Cross-Country Growth Behaviour," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 10(4), pages 365-384, Oct.-Dec..
    7. Ram, Rati, 1992. "Income, Distribution, and Welfare: An Intercountry Comparison," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 41(1), pages 141-145, October.
    8. Sen, Amartya, 1997. "On Economic Inequality," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198292975.
    9. Ravallion, Martin & Chen, Shaohua, 2003. "Measuring pro-poor growth," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 78(1), pages 93-99, January.
    10. Patricia Justino & Julie Litchfield & Yoko Niimi, 2004. "Multidimensional Inequality: An Empirial Application to Brazil," PRUS Working Papers 24, Poverty Research Unit at Sussex, University of Sussex.
    11. Costas Azariadis & Allan Drazen, 1990. "Threshold Externalities in Economic Development," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 105(2), pages 501-526.
    12. Juan R. Cuadrado-Roura, 2001. "Regional convergence in the European Union: From hypothesis to the actual trends," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 35(3), pages 333-356.
    13. Rodriguez-Pose, Andres, 1998. "Dynamics of Regional Growth in Europe: Social and Political Factors," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198233831.
    14. Xavier Sala-i-Martin, 2001. "The disturbing 'rise' of global income inequality," Economics Working Papers 616, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Apr 2002.
    15. Quah, Danny T., 1996. "Empirics for economic growth and convergence," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(6), pages 1353-1375, June.
    16. Roberto Ezcurra & Pedro Pascual & Manuel Rapun, 2006. "Regional mobility in the European Union," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(19), pages 2237-2253.
    17. Martin, Philippe, 1999. "Public policies, regional inequalities and growth," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 85-105, July.
    18. Kristin J. Forbes, 2000. "A Reassessment of the Relationship between Inequality and Growth," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 90(4), pages 869-887, September.
    19. Philippe Martin, 1999. "Public Policies, Regional Inequalities and Growth," Post-Print hal-03609271, HAL.
    20. Roberto Ezcurra & Pedro Pascual, 2005. "Is there convergence in income inequality levels among the European regions?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(12), pages 763-767.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Francesca Parente, 2019. "A Multidimensional Analysis of the EU Regional Inequalities," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 143(3), pages 1017-1044, June.
    2. Andrés Rodríguez-Pose & Vassilis Tselios, 2015. "Toward Inclusive Growth," International Regional Science Review, , vol. 38(1), pages 30-60, January.
    3. Andrés Rodríguez‐Pose & Vassilis Tselios, 2009. "Education And Income Inequality In The Regions Of The European Union," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 49(3), pages 411-437, August.
    4. Riccardo Pozzi & Rosalba Rombaldoni & Edgar J.Sanchez Carrera, 2018. "Inequalities, spatial disparities and agglomeration of economic activity in European regions," Working Papers 1805, University of Urbino Carlo Bo, Department of Economics, Society & Politics - Scientific Committee - L. Stefanini & G. Travaglini, revised 2018.
    5. Wenze Yue & Yuntang Zhang & Xinyue Ye & Yeqing Cheng & Mark R. Leipnik, 2014. "Dynamics of Multi-Scale Intra-Provincial Regional Inequality in Zhejiang, China," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 6(9), pages 1-22, August.
    6. Betsy Donald & Mia Gray & Centre for Business Research, 2018. "The Double Crisis: In What Sense A Regional Problem?," Working Papers wp507, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge.
    7. Neil Lee & Andrés Rodríguez-Pose, 2013. "Innovation and spatial inequality in Europe and USA," Journal of Economic Geography, Oxford University Press, vol. 13(1), pages 1-22, January.
    8. Emmanouil Tranos & Peter Nijkamp, 2014. "Digital infrastructure and physical proximity," Chapters, in: André Torre & Frédéric Wallet (ed.), Regional Development and Proximity Relations, chapter 8, pages 267-290, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    9. KYDROS Dimitrios & FILENTA Pagona, 2022. "Literature Review of Economic and Regional Development through Quantitative Methods and Social Network Analysis," European Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies, Bucharest Economic Academy, issue 01, March.
    10. Jyotirmayee Kar, 2012. "Income Inequality in Some Major European Union Economies a Discriminant Analysis," Annals of the University of Petrosani, Economics, University of Petrosani, Romania, vol. 12(4), pages 117-128.
    11. Bittencourt, Manoel & Chang, Shinhye & Gupta, Rangan & Miller, Stephen M., 2019. "Does financial development affect income inequality in the U.S. States?," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 41(6), pages 1043-1056.
    12. Kaja Bonesmo Fredriksen, 2012. "Income Inequality in the European Union," OECD Economics Department Working Papers 952, OECD Publishing.
    13. Carrera, Edgar J. Sánchez & Rombaldoni, Rosalba & Pozzi, Riccardo, 2021. "Socioeconomic inequalities in Europe," Economic Analysis and Policy, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 307-320.
    14. Manoel Bittencourt & Shinhye Chang & Rangan Gupta & Stephen M. Miller, 2018. "Does Financial Development Affect Income Inequality in the U.S. States? A Panel Data Analysis," Working Papers 201803, University of Pretoria, Department of Economics.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Steven N. Durlauf & Andros Kourtellos & Chih Ming Tan, 2008. "Empirics of Growth and Development," Chapters, in: Amitava Krishna Dutt & Jaime Ros (ed.), International Handbook of Development Economics, Volumes 1 & 2, volume 0, chapter 3, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    2. Danny Quah, 1996. "Twin Peaks: Growth and Convergence in Models of Distribution Dynamics," CEP Discussion Papers dp0280, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
    3. Durlauf, Steven N. & Quah, Danny T., 1999. "The new empirics of economic growth," Handbook of Macroeconomics, in: J. B. Taylor & M. Woodford (ed.), Handbook of Macroeconomics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 4, pages 235-308, Elsevier.
    4. Azomahou, Théophile T. & El ouardighi, Jalal & Nguyen-Van, Phu & Pham, Thi Kim Cuong, 2011. "Testing convergence of European regions: A semiparametric approach," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 28(3), pages 1202-1210, May.
    5. Novotný, JOSEF, 2011. "Convergence and divergence in living standards among regions of the enlarged European Union (1992-2006)," MPRA Paper 34145, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    6. Meysonnat, Aline & Muysken, Joan & Zon, Adriaan van, 2015. "Poverty traps: the neglected role of vitality," MERIT Working Papers 2015-052, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    7. Luis F. López-Calva & Eduardo Ortiz-Juarez & Carlos Rodríguez-Castelán, 2022. "Within-country poverty convergence: evidence from Mexico," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 62(5), pages 2547-2586, May.
    8. Li, Kui-Wai & Zhou, Xianbo & Pan, Zhewen, 2016. "Cross-country output convergence and growth: Evidence from varying coefficient nonparametric method," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 32-41.
    9. Quah, Danny, 1996. "Twin peaks : growth and convergence in models of distribution dynamics," LSE Research Online Documents on Economics 2278, London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Library.
    10. Georgios Fotopoulos, 2012. "Nonlinearities in regional economic growth and convergence: the role of entrepreneurship in the European union regions," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 48(3), pages 719-741, June.
    11. Azariadis, Costas & Stachurski, John, 2005. "Poverty Traps," Handbook of Economic Growth, in: Philippe Aghion & Steven Durlauf (ed.), Handbook of Economic Growth, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 5, Elsevier.
    12. Elvio Accinelli & Juan Gabriel Brida, 2007. "Modelos económicos con múltiples regímenes," Revista de Administración, Finanzas y Economía (Journal of Management, Finance and Economics), Tecnológico de Monterrey, Campus Ciudad de México, vol. 1(2), pages 96-115.
    13. Massimiliano Affinito, 2011. "Convergence clubs, the euro-area rank and the relationship between banking and real convergence," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 809, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
    14. Philippe Martin, 1999. "Are European regional policies delivering?," SciencePo Working papers hal-01011168, HAL.
    15. Shana M. Sundstrom & Craig R. Allen & David G. Angeler, 2020. "Scaling and discontinuities in the global economy," Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Springer, vol. 30(2), pages 319-345, April.
    16. Breandán Ó'hUallacháin, 2008. "Regional growth transition clubs in the United States," Papers in Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 87(1), pages 33-53, March.
    17. Elizabeth M. Caucutt & Krishna B. Kumar, 2004. "Evaluating Explanations for Stagnation," Development and Comp Systems 0409002, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Dall'erba, Sandy & Kamarianakis, Yiannis & Le Gallo, Julie & Plotnikova, Maria, 2005. "Regional Productivity Differentials in Three New Member Countries: What Can We Learn from the 1986 Enlargement to the South?," The Review of Regional Studies, Southern Regional Science Association, vol. 35(1), pages 97-116.
    19. Fousekis, Panos, 2007. "Convergence of Relative State-level Per Capita Incomes in the United States Revisited," Journal of Regional Analysis and Policy, Mid-Continent Regional Science Association, vol. 37(2), pages 1-10.
    20. Huang, Ho-Chuan, 2005. "Diverging evidence of convergence hypothesis," Journal of Macroeconomics, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 233-255, June.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    income inequality; regions; Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis; Europe; urbanization; EU North-South divide;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:fau:fauart:v:59:y:2009:i:1:p:41-70. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/icunicz.html .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Natalie Svarcova (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://edirc.repec.org/data/icunicz.html .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.