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Estimating commuters' "value of time" with noisy data: a multiple imputation approach

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  • Steimetz, Seiji S.C.
  • Brownstone, David

Abstract

We estimate how motorists value their time savings and characterize the degree of heterogeneity in these values by observable traits. We obtain these estimates by analyzing the choices that commuters make in a real market situation, where they are offered a free-flow alternative to congested travel. We do so, however, in an empirical setting where several key observations are missing. To overcome this, we apply Rubin's multiple imputation method to generate consistent estimates and valid statistical inferences. We also compare these estimates to those produced in a "single imputation" scenario to illustrate the potential hazards of single imputation methods when multiple imputation methods are warranted. Our results show the importance of properly accounting for errors in the imputation process, and they also show that value of time savings varies greatly according to motorist characteristics.

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  • Steimetz, Seiji S.C. & Brownstone, David, 2005. "Estimating commuters' "value of time" with noisy data: a multiple imputation approach," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 865-889, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:transb:v:39:y:2005:i:10:p:865-889
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    1. Ghosh, Arindam, 2001. "Valuing Time and Reliability: Commuters' Mode Choice from a Real Time Congestion Pricing Experiment," University of California Transportation Center, Working Papers qt9fz0z9kq, University of California Transportation Center.
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    Cited by:

    1. Hymel, Kent M. & Small, Kenneth A. & Dender, Kurt Van, 2010. "Induced demand and rebound effects in road transport," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(10), pages 1220-1241, December.
    2. Georgina Santos & Erik Verhoef, 2011. "Road Congestion Pricing," Chapters,in: A Handbook of Transport Economics, chapter 23 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    3. Santos, Georgina & Behrendt, Hannah & Maconi, Laura & Shirvani, Tara & Teytelboym, Alexander, 2010. "Part I: Externalities and economic policies in road transport," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 2-45.
    4. Kenneth A. Small & Clifford Winston & Jia Yan, 2005. "Differentiated Road Pricing, Express Lanes and Carpools: Exploiting Heterogeneous Preferences in Policy Design," Working Papers 050616, University of California-Irvine, Department of Economics, revised Mar 2006.
    5. Artés, Joaquín, 2009. "Long-run versus short-run decisions: R&D and market structure in Spanish firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(1), pages 120-132, February.
    6. Fezzi, Carlo & Bateman, Ian J. & Ferrini, Silvia, 2014. "Using revealed preferences to estimate the Value of Travel Time to recreation sites," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 67(1), pages 58-70.
    7. Hensher, David A., 2010. "Hypothetical bias, choice experiments and willingness to pay," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 44(6), pages 735-752, July.
    8. Steimetz, Seiji S.C., 2008. "Defensive driving and the external costs of accidents and travel delays," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 42(9), pages 703-724, November.
    9. Janson, Michael & Levinson, David, 2014. "HOT or not," Research in Transportation Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(C), pages 21-32.
    10. Artés, Joaquín, 2014. "The rain in Spain: Turnout and partisan voting in Spanish elections," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 126-141.
    11. Rong-Chang Jou & Tzu-Ying Chen, 2015. "External Costs to Parties Involved in Highway Traffic Accidents: The Perspective of Highway Users," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 7(6), pages 1-23, June.
    12. Holgun-Veras, Jos & Cetin, Mecit, 2009. "Optimal tolls for multi-class traffic: Analytical formulations and policy implications," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 445-467, May.
    13. Díaz, Federico & Cantillo, Víctor & Arellana, Julian & Ortúzar, Juan de Dios, 2015. "Accounting for stochastic variables in discrete choice models," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 222-237.
    14. Shewmake, Sharon & Jarvis, Lovell, 2014. "Hybrid cars and HOV lanes," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 67(C), pages 304-319.

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