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Culture and entrepreneurship? African American and immigrant self-employment in the United States

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  • Bogan, Vicki
  • Darity Jr., William

Abstract

This paper analyzes the evolution of African American entrepreneurship by comparing the patterns of development of African American entrepreneurship and immigrant entrepreneurship. Whereas most literature focuses on African American culture as the reason for limited entrepreneurial success compared to certain immigrant groups, this paper examines how social, economic, and political forces have adversely influenced the development of Black entrepreneurship compared to various immigrant groups. Using 90 years of census data, we also find empirical support consistent with our assertion that many immigrants have resources (not available to native non-Whites) that facilitate entrepreneurship.

Suggested Citation

  • Bogan, Vicki & Darity Jr., William, 2008. "Culture and entrepreneurship? African American and immigrant self-employment in the United States," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 37(5), pages 1999-2019, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:soceco:v:37:y:2008:i:5:p:1999-2019
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. William Darity Jr & Dania Frank, 2003. "The Economics of Reparations," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 93(2), pages 326-329, May.
    2. Robert W. Fairlie & Bruce D. Meyer, 2003. "The Effect of Immigration on Native Self-Employment," Journal of Labor Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 21(3), pages 619-650, July.
    3. Peter Bearse, 1984. "An econometric analysis of black entrepreneurship," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer;National Economic Association, vol. 12(4), pages 111-134, March.
    4. Robert W. Fairlie, 2004. "Recent Trends in Ethnic and Racial Business Ownership," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 23(3), pages 203-218, October.
    5. William Darity & Jason Dietrich & David K. Guilkey, 2001. "Persistent Advantage or Disadvantage?: Evidence in Support of the Intergenerational Drag Hypothesis," American Journal of Economics and Sociology, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 60(2), pages 435-470, April.
    6. David G. Blanchflower & Phillip B. Levine & David J. Zimmerman, 2003. "Discrimination in the Small-Business Credit Market," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 85(4), pages 930-943, November.
    7. Robert W. Fairlie & Bruce D. Meyer, 2000. "Trends in Self-Employment among White and Black Men during the Twentieth Century," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(4), pages 643-669.
    8. Borjas, George J & Bronars, Stephen G, 1989. "Consumer Discrimination and Self-employment," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(3), pages 581-605, June.
    9. William O’Hare, 1990. "Black business ownership in the rural south," The Review of Black Political Economy, Springer;National Economic Association, vol. 18(3), pages 93-104, December.
    10. Kawaguchi Daiji, 2005. "Negative Self Selection into Self-employment among African Americans," The B.E. Journal of Economic Analysis & Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 5(1), pages 1-27, May.
    11. Smith, James P & Welch, Finis R, 1989. "Black Economic Progress after Myrdal," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 27(2), pages 519-564, June.
    12. Brimmer, Andrew F, 1988. "Income, Wealth, and Investment Behavior in the Black Community," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 78(2), pages 151-155, May.
    13. Anne O. Krueger, 1963. "The Economics of Discrimination," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 71, pages 481-481.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Claudia Senik & Thierry Verdier, 2011. "Segregation, entrepreneurship and work values: the case of France," Journal of Population Economics, Springer;European Society for Population Economics, vol. 24(4), pages 1207-1234, October.
    2. Ruth Oyelere & Willie Belton, 2013. "Black–White gap in self-employment. Does intra-race heterogeneity exist?," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 25-39, June.
    3. Bernard Lama Ngota & Sookdhev Rajkaran & Sanjay Balkaran & Eric E Mang’unyi, 2017. "Exploring the African Immigrant Entrepreneurship - Job Creation Nexus: A South African Case Study," International Review of Management and Marketing, Econjournals, vol. 7(3), pages 143-149.
    4. Kevin M. Kniffin & Andrew S. Hanks, 2017. "Antecedents and near-term consequences for interdisciplinary dissertators," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 111(3), pages 1225-1250, June.
    5. Boyd, Robert L., 2008. "Trends in the occupations of eminent black entrepreneurs in the United States," Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Economics (formerly The Journal of Socio-Economics), Elsevier, vol. 37(6), pages 2390-2398, December.
    6. Qingfang Wang, 2010. "Immigration and Ethnic Entrepreneurship: A Comparative Study in the United States," Growth and Change, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(3), pages 430-458, September.
    7. Harris, Jared D. & Sapienza, Harry J. & Bowie, Norman E., 2009. "Ethics and entrepreneurship," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 24(5), pages 407-418, September.
    8. Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth & Belton, Willie, 2008. "The Role of Information and Institutions in Understanding the Black-White Gap in Self-Employment," IZA Discussion Papers 3761, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    9. Sefa Awaworyi Churchill, 2017. "Microfinance and Ethnic Diversity," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 93(300), pages 112-141, March.
    10. DeLancey, Rebecca Mbuh, 2014. "Entrepreneurship and Immigration: A Study of Africans in the Korean Economy," MPRA Paper 54050, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    11. Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth & Belton, Willie, 2010. "Black-White Gap in Self-Employment in the U.S.: Do Cohort and Within Race Differences Exist?," IZA Discussion Papers 5071, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    12. Fesselmeyer, Eric & Seah, Kiat Ying, 2017. "Neighborhood segregation and black entrepreneurship," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 154(C), pages 88-91.
    13. Deller, Steven C. & Conroy, Tessa & Markeson, Bjorn, 2018. "Social capital, religion and small business activity," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 155(C), pages 365-381.
    14. DeLancey, Rebecca Mbuh, 2015. "Gendering Entrepreneurship and Technology: A Mixed Methods Study of Retailers in a Developing Economy," MPRA Paper 68839, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    15. Robert L. Boyd, 2020. "Dispersed or Concentrated? Urban Distributions of Ethnic Retail Entrepreneurs: the Late Nineteenth-Century USA," Journal of International Migration and Integration, Springer, vol. 21(1), pages 41-56, March.

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