Effects of foreign acquisitions on R&D activity: Evidence from firm-level data for France
This paper investigates the causal effect of foreign acquisitions on the research and development (R&D) activities of domestic target firms over the period 1994-2004. Using accounting data on French innovative manufacturing firms, we implement appropriate difference-in-difference estimation techniques associated with a matching propensity score procedure. We find that the acquisitions of French firms by foreign companies boost R&D spending. There is a simultaneous rise in the external and in-house R&D expenditures of French acquired firms. R&D is more contracted out to local research providers, in particular to local public laboratories and universities. The increase in internal R&D spending benefits to development, but also basic and applied research. Finally, the growth of the R&D budget is not only financed by internal resources but also receives financing from external partners, especially parent companies. Thus, our results call into question the idea that foreign takeovers hamper the R&D development of target firms and are detrimental to the national innovation system of the host country. First, acquisitions appear to bring efficiency gains enough to counterbalance the various costs of integration and market power effects, pushing firms to invest more in R&D. Acquisitions do not seem to incite managers to take shorter term and more financial driven decisions at the expense of R&D. Second, when motivated by technology sourcing and overseas R&D development, acquisitions might be used to access the specific know-how of target firms and to tap into the knowledge of the national innovation system. Then, purchaser firms could be more likely to develop the innovative capability of target firms and to strengthen their linkages with local partners than to reduce them and relocate R&D abroad.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Bronwyn Hall, 2004.
"The financing of research and development,"
in: Financial Systems, Corporate Investment in Innovation, and Venture Capital, chapter 2
Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Bronwyn H. Hall, 2003. "The Financing of Research and Development," Finance 0303003, EconWPA.
- Hall, Bronwyn H., 2002. "The Financing of Research and Development," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt34c1c643, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Bronwyn H. Hall, 2002. "The Financing of Research and Development," NBER Working Papers 8773, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Hall, Bronwyn, 2002. "The Financing of Research and Development," Department of Economics, Working Paper Series qt5rf0x9gz, Department of Economics, Institute for Business and Economic Research, UC Berkeley.
- Bruno Cassiman & David Pérez Castrillo & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2000.
"Endogeneizing know-how flows through the nature of R&D investments,"
Economics Working Papers
512, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra, revised Mar 2001.
- Cassiman, Bruno & Perez-Castrillo, David & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2002. "Endogenizing know-how flows through the nature of R&D investments," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 20(6), pages 775-799, June.
- David Pérez-Castrillo & Bruno Cassiman & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2000. "Endogeneizing know-how flows through the nature of R&D investments," UFAE and IAE Working Papers 464.00, Unitat de Fonaments de l'Anàlisi Econòmica (UAB) and Institut d'Anàlisi Econòmica (CSIC).
- Cassiman, Bruno & Pérez-Castrillo, J David & Veugelers, Reinhilde, 2000. "Endogenizing Know-How Flows Through the Nature of R&D Investments," CEPR Discussion Papers 2622, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Cassiman, Bruno & Pérez-Castrillo, David, 2000. "Endogenizing know-how flows through the nature of R&D investments," IESE Research Papers D/428, IESE Business School.
- Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 1998.
"Propensity Score Matching Methods for Non-experimental Causal Studies,"
NBER Working Papers
6829, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Rajeev H. Dehejia & Sadek Wahba, 2002. "Propensity Score-Matching Methods For Nonexperimental Causal Studies," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 84(1), pages 151-161, February.
- Wilbur Chung & Juan Alcácer, 2002. "Knowledge Seeking and Location Choice of Foreign Direct Investment in the United States," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 48(12), pages 1534-1554, December.
- Patricia M. Danzon & Andrew Epstein & Sean Nicholson, 2004.
"Mergers and Acquisitions in the Pharmaceutical and Biotech Industries,"
NBER Working Papers
10536, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Patricia M. Danzon & Andrew Epstein & Sean Nicholson, 2007. "Mergers and acquisitions in the pharmaceutical and biotech industries," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 28(4-5), pages 307-328.
- Jacquemin, Alexis & Slade, Margaret E., 1989. "Cartels, collusion, and horizontal merger," Handbook of Industrial Organization, in: R. Schmalensee & R. Willig (ed.), Handbook of Industrial Organization, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 7, pages 415-473 Elsevier.
- Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2006.
"Investment Lilberalization - Why a Restrictive Cross-Border Merger Policy can be Counterproductive,"
Working Paper Series
666, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Norback, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2007. "Investment liberalization -- Why a restrictive cross-border merger policy can be counterproductive," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(2), pages 366-380, July.
- Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2005. "Investment Liberalization - Why a Restrictive Cross-Border Merger Policy can be Counterproductive," Working Paper Series 644, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Deborah L. Swenson, 1993. "Foreign Mergers and Acquisitions in the United States," NBER Chapters, in: Foreign Direct Investment, pages 255-284 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Jensen, Michael C, 1986. "Agency Costs of Free Cash Flow, Corporate Finance, and Takeovers," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 76(2), pages 323-329, May.
- Walter Kuemmerle, 1999. "The Drivers of Foreign Direct Investment into Research and Development: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 30(1), pages 1-24, March.
- Bruce Kogut & Udo Zander, 1992. "Knowledge of the Firm, Combinative Capabilities, and the Replication of Technology," Organization Science, INFORMS, vol. 3(3), pages 383-397, August.
- Shimizutani, Satoshi & Todo, Yasuyuki, 2008.
"What determines overseas R&D activities? The case of Japanese multinational firms,"
Elsevier, vol. 37(3), pages 530-544, April.
- SHIMIZUTANI Satoshi & TODO Yasuyuki, 2007. "What Determines Overseas R&D Activities? The Case of Japanese Multinational Firms," Discussion papers 07010, Research Institute of Economy, Trade and Industry (RIETI).
- Cees van Beers & Elina Berghäll & Tom Poot, 2007.
"R&D Internationalization, R&D Collaboration and Public Knowledge Institutions in Small Economies Evidence from Finland and the Netherlands,"
DRUID Working Papers
07-12, DRUID, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Industrial Economics and Strategy/Aalborg University, Department of Business Studies.
- van Beers, Cees & Berghäll, Elina & Poot, Tom, 2008. "R&D internationalization, R&D collaboration and public knowledge institutions in small economies: Evidence from Finland and the Netherlands," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 294-308, March.
- Katariina Nilsson Hakkala & Olivier Bertrand & Norbäck Pehr-Johan & Persson Lars, 2008.
"Should R&D Champions be Protected from Foreign Takeovers?,"
459, Government Institute for Economic Research Finland (VATT).
- Bertrand, Olivier & Nilsson Hakkala, Katariina & Norbäck, Pehr-Johan & Persson, Lars, 2008. "Should R&D Champions be Protected from Foreign Takeovers?," Working Paper Series 772, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
- Francesca Sanna-Randaccio & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2007. "Multinational knowledge spillovers with decentralised R&D: a game-theoretic approach," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 38(1), pages 47-63, January.
- Frey, Rainer & Hussinger, Katrin, 2006.
"The Role of Technology in M&As: A Firm Level Comparison of Cross-Border and Domestic Deals,"
ZEW Discussion Papers
06-69, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
- Frey, Rainer & Hussinger, Katrin, 2006. "The role of technology in M&As: a firm-level comparison of cross-border and domestic deals," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2006,45, Deutsche Bundesbank, Research Centre.
- Kumar, Nagesh, 2001. "Determinants of location of overseas R&D activity of multinational enterprises: the case of US and Japanese corporations1," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 30(1), pages 159-174, January.
- Richard Blundell & Monica Costa Dias, 2000. "Evaluation methods for non-experimental data," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 21(4), pages 427-468, January.
- Andrei Shleifer & Lawrence H. Summers, 1987.
"Breach of Trust in Hostile Takeovers,"
NBER Working Papers
2342, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Kamien,Morton I. & Schwartz,Nancy L., 1982. "Market Structure and Innovation," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521293853, December.
- Rosenberg, Nathan, 1990. "Why do firms do basic research (with their own money)?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 165-174, April.
- Cohen, Wesley M & Levinthal, Daniel A, 1989. "Innovation and Learning: The Two Faces of R&D," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 99(397), pages 569-596, September.
- Ornaghi, Carmine, 2009. "Mergers and innovation in big pharma," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(1), pages 70-79, January.
- Reinganum, Jennifer R., 1982.
"Uncertain Innovation and the Persistence of Monopoly,"
431, California Institute of Technology, Division of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
- Reinganum, Jennifer F, 1983. "Uncertain Innovation and the Persistence of Monopoly," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 73(4), pages 741-748, September.
- Gooroochurn, Nishaal & Hanley, Aoife, 2007.
"A tale of two literatures: Transaction costs and property rights in innovation outsourcing,"
Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 1483-1495, December.
- Nishaal Gooroochurn & Aoife Hanley, 2006. "A Tale of Two Literatures: Transaction Cost and Property Rights in Innovation Outsourcing," Occasional Papers 17, Industrial Economics Division.
- Bertrand, Olivier & Zuniga, Pluvia, 2006.
"R&D and M&A: Are cross-border M&A different? An investigation on OECD countries,"
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 24(2), pages 401-423, March.
- Olivier Bertrand & Pluvia Zuniga, 2004. "R&D and M&A : Are cross-border M&A different ? An investigation on OECD countries," Cahiers de la Maison des Sciences Economiques bla04072, Université Panthéon-Sorbonne (Paris 1).
- Todd R. Zenger, 1994. "Explaining Organizational Diseconomies of Scale in R&D: Agency Problems and the Allocation of Engineering Talent, Ideas, and Effort by Firm Size," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(6), pages 708-729, June.
- Gugler, Klaus & Mueller, Dennis C. & Yurtoglu, B. Burcin & Zulehner, Christine, 2003.
"The effects of mergers: an international comparison,"
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 625-653, May.
- Klaus Gugler & Dennis C. Mueller & B. Burcin Yurtoglu & Christine Zulehner, 2001. "The Effects of Mergers: An International Comparison," CIG Working Papers FS IV 01-21, Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin (WZB), Research Unit: Competition and Innovation (CIG).
- Capron, Laurence & Mitchell, Will, 1998. "Bilateral Resource Redeployment and Capabilities Improvement Following Horizontal Acquisitions," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 7(3), pages 453-484, September.
- Caves, Richard E., 1989. "Mergers, takeovers, and economic efficiency : Foresight vs. hindsight," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 151-174, March.
- Harris, Robert S & Ravenscraft, David, 1991. " The Role of Acquisitions in Foreign Direct Investment: Evidence from the U.S. Stock Market," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 46(3), pages 825-844, July.
- Bruce D. Meyer, 1994.
"Natural and Quasi- Experiments in Economics,"
NBER Technical Working Papers
0170, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- James Love & Stephen Roper, 2002. "Internal Versus External R&D: A Study of R&D Choice with Sample Selection," International Journal of the Economics of Business, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(2), pages 239-255.
- d'Aspremont, Claude & Jacquemin, Alexis, 1988.
"Cooperative and Noncooperative R&D in Duopoly with Spillovers,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 78(5), pages 1133-1137, December.
- d'ASPREMONT, Claude & JACQUEMIN, Alexis, "undated". "Cooperative and noncooperative R&D in duopoly with spillovers," CORE Discussion Papers RP 823, Université catholique de Louvain, Center for Operations Research and Econometrics (CORE).
- Kogut, Bruce & Chang, Sea Jin, 1991. "Technological Capabilities and Japanese Foreign Direct Investment in the United States," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 73(3), pages 401-413, August.
- B. Douglas Bernheim & Michael D. Whinston, 1990. "Multimarket Contact and Collusive Behavior," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 21(1), pages 1-26, Spring.
- Bertrand Quélin & François Duhamel, 2003.
"Bringing Together Strategic Outsourcing and Corporate Strategy : Outsourcing Motives and Risks,"
- Quélin, Bertrand & Duhamel, François, 2003. "Bringing Together Strategic Outsourcing and Corporate Strategy:: Outsourcing Motives and Risks," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 647-661, October.
- Veugelers, Reinhilde & Cassiman, Bruno, 1999. "Make and buy in innovation strategies: evidence from Belgian manufacturing firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 63-80, January.
- Lori Rosenkopf & Paul Almeida, 2003. "Overcoming Local Search Through Alliances and Mobility," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 49(6), pages 751-766, June.
- Paola Criscuolo & Rajneesh Narula & Bart Verspagen, 2005. "Role of home and host country innovation systems in r&d internationalisation: a patent citation analysis," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 14(5), pages 417-433.
- Bruno Cassiman & Reinhilde Veugelers, 2006. "In Search of Complementarity in Innovation Strategy: Internal R& D and External Knowledge Acquisition," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 52(1), pages 68-82, January.
- Constatinos C Markides & Christopher D Ittner, 1994. "Shareholder Benefits from Corporate International Diversification: Evidence from U.S. International Acquisitions," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 25(2), pages 343-366, June.
- James D. Reitzes & David T. Levy, 1995. "Price Discrimination and Mergers," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(2), pages 427-436, May.
- Neven, D. & Siotis, G., 1996.
"Technology sourcing and FDI in the EC: An empirical evaluation,"
International Journal of Industrial Organization,
Elsevier, vol. 14(5), pages 543-560, July.
- Damien NEVEN & George SIOTIS, 1995. "Technology Sourcing and FDI in the EC : An Empirical Evaluation," Cahiers de Recherches Economiques du Département d'Econométrie et d'Economie politique (DEEP) 9508, Université de Lausanne, Faculté des HEC, DEEP.
- Levy, David T & Reitzes, James D, 1992. "Anticompetitive Effects of Mergers in Markets with Localized Competition," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, Oxford University Press, vol. 8(2), pages 427-440, April.
- Veugelers, Reinhilde, 1997. "Internal R & D expenditures and external technology sourcing," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 303-315, October.
- James J. Heckman & Hidehiko Ichimura & Petra E. Todd, 1997. "Matching As An Econometric Evaluation Estimator: Evidence from Evaluating a Job Training Programme," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 64(4), pages 605-654.
- McAfee, R Preston & Simons, Joseph J & Williams, Michael A, 1992. "Horizontal Mergers in Spatially Differentiated Noncooperative Markets," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(4), pages 349-358, December.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:38:y:2009:i:6:p:1021-1031. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.