The effects of mergers: an international comparison
This paper analyzes the effects of mergers around the world over the past 15 years. We utilize a large panel of data on mergers to test several hypotheses about mergers. The effects of the mergers are examined by comparing the performance of the merging firms with control groups of nonmerging firms. The comparisons are made on profitability and sales. The results show that mergers on average do result in significant increases in profits, but reduce the sales of the merging firms. Interestingly, these post merger patterns look similar across countries. We also did not find dramatic differences between mergers in the manufacturing and the service sectors, and between domestic and cross-border mergers. Conglomerate mergers decrease sales more than horizontal mergers. By separating mergers into those that increase profits and those that reduce them and by then examining the patterns of sales changes following the mergers, we determine the effects of mergers on efficiency and market power. Our results suggest that those mergers that decrease profits and efficiency account for a large proportion. However, we can also identify mergers that increase profits by either increasing market power or by increasing efficiency. The first conclusion seems to be a more likely explanation for large companies, whereas the latter is likely to be true for small firms. ZUSAMMENFASSUNG - (Die Effekte von Fusionen: Ein internationaler Vergleich) Dieser Artikel analysiert die Effekte von Fusionen, die weltweit über die letzten 15 Jahre stattgefunden haben. Wir vergleichen die Gewinn- und Umsatzentwicklung von fusionierenden Firmen mit der Entwicklung von nicht-fusionierenden Firmen. Die Resultate zeigen, dass Fusionen im Durchschnitt zu signifikant höheren Profiten führen, aber dass die Umsätze im Vergleich zur Kontrollgruppe zurückbleiben. Interessanterweise sind diese Effekte bei Vergleichen zwischen den verschiedenen Ländern, bei einem Vergleich zwischen Industriesektor und Dienstleistungs
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References listed on IDEAS
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- Mueller, Dennis C, 1985. "Mergers and Market Share," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 67(2), pages 259-267, May.
- Suits, Daniel B, 1984. "Dummy Variables: Mechanics v. Interpretation," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 66(1), pages 177-180, February.
- Dean F. Amel & Stephen A. Rhoades, 1989. "Empirical Evidence on the Motives for Bank Mergers," Eastern Economic Journal, Eastern Economic Association, vol. 15(1), pages 17-27, Jan-Mar.
- Scott,John T., 2005.
"Purposive Diversification and Economic Performance,"
Cambridge University Press, number 9780521022583, October.
- Scott,John T., 1993. "Purposive Diversification and Economic Performance," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521430159, October.
- Stephen W. Salant & Sheldon Switzer & Robert J. Reynolds, 1983. "Losses From Horizontal Merger: The Effects of an Exogenous Change in Industry Structure on Cournot-Nash Equilibrium," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 98(2), pages 185-199.
- Goldberg, Lawrence G, 1973. "The Effect of Conglomerate Mergers on Competition," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 16(1), pages 137-158, April.
- Healy, Paul M. & Palepu, Krishna G. & Ruback, Richard S., 1992. "Does corporate performance improve after mergers?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(2), pages 135-175, April. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
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