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Price Discrimination and Mergers

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  • James D. Reitzes
  • David T. Levy

Abstract

The authors demonstrate how purely anticompetitive horizontal mergers can produce larger gains for merging firms than for nonmerging firms. Moreover, these anticompetitive mergers do not promote entry. These findings, which eliminate a long-standing free-rider problem from the previous merger literature, stem from the ability of firms to price discriminate under asymmetric competition. To illustrate, the authors use a spatial model of consumer preferences. Their results suggest that merger may significantly reduce consumer surplus in markets with certain characteristics, such as those where bidding occurs. The authors' model also shows that price discrimination facilitates entry deterrence in spatial markets.

Suggested Citation

  • James D. Reitzes & David T. Levy, 1995. "Price Discrimination and Mergers," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(2), pages 427-436, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:cje:issued:v:28:y:1995:i:2:p:427-36
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof & Stennek, Johan, 1999. "Why Mergers Reduce Profits, and Raise Share Prices," Working Paper Series 511, Research Institute of Industrial Economics, revised 03 Dec 2001.
    2. Felipe Balmaceda(University of Chile), Eduardo Saavedra(Georgetown University/Ilades), 2004. "Vertical Integration and Shared Facilities in Unregulated Industries," Working Papers gueconwpa~04-04-13, Georgetown University, Department of Economics.
    3. Artz, Benjamin & Heywood, John S. & McGinty, Matthew, 2009. "The merger paradox in a mixed oligopoly," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(1), pages 1-10, March.
    4. Rothschild, R. & Heywood, John S. & Monaco, Kristen, 2000. "Spatial price discrimination and the merger paradox," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 30(5), pages 491-506, September.
    5. Sven-Olof Fridolfsson & Johan Stennek, 2005. "Why Mergers Reduce Profits And Raise Share Prices-A Theory Of Preemptive Mergers," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 3(5), pages 1083-1104, September.
    6. Bertrand, Olivier & Zuniga, Pluvia, 2006. "R&D and M&A: Are cross-border M&A different? An investigation on OECD countries," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, pages 401-423.
    7. Cosnita-Langlais, Andreea, 2012. "Horizontal market concentration: Theoretical insights from spatial models," Research in Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(1), pages 22-32.
    8. John Heywood & Guangliang Ye, 2013. "Sequential entry and merger in spatial price discrimination," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 50(3), pages 841-859, June.
    9. Guangliang Ye & Wenbin Wu, 2015. "Privatization and merger in a mixed oligopoly with spatial price discrimination," The Annals of Regional Science, Springer;Western Regional Science Association, vol. 54(2), pages 561-576, March.
    10. Teresa D. Harrison, 2007. "Consolidations and closures: an empirical analysis of exits from the hospital industry," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(5), pages 457-474.
    11. Norman, George & Thisse, Jacques-Francois, 1999. "Technology Choice and Market Structure: Strategic Aspects of Flexible Manufacturing," Journal of Industrial Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 47(3), pages 345-372, September.
    12. Lars-Hendrik Röller & Johan Stennek & Frank Verboven, 2006. "Efficiency Gains from Mergers," Chapters,in: European Merger Control, chapter 3 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    13. Innes, Robert, 2008. "Entry for merger with flexible manufacturing: Implications for competition policy," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 26(1), pages 266-287, January.
    14. Richard S. Higgins, 1999. "A geometric treatment of discriminatory pricing among spatially competitive suppliers, with antitrust applications," Managerial and Decision Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 20(8), pages 437-445.
    15. Lars-Hendrik Röller & Johan Stennek & Frank Verboven, 2006. "Efficiency Gains from Mergers," Chapters,in: European Merger Control, chapter 3 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    16. Rosa-Branca Esteves & Helder Vasconcelos, 2015. "Price Discrimination under Customer Recognition and Mergers," Journal of Economics & Management Strategy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(3), pages 523-549, September.
    17. John Heywood & Zheng Wang, 2014. "Spatial price discrimination and mergers with convex production costs," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 1-8, March.
    18. Bertrand, Olivier, 2009. "Effects of foreign acquisitions on R&D activity: Evidence from firm-level data for France," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(6), pages 1021-1031, July.
    19. Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof & Stennek, Johan, 2005. "Hold-up of anti-competitive mergers," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 23(9-10), pages 753-775, December.
    20. Braid, Ralph M., 1999. "The price and profit effects of horizontal mergers in two-dimensional spatial competition," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 62(1), pages 113-119, January.

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