Effects of sharing the parental leave on pensioners' poverty and gender inequality in old age: A simulation in IFSIM
Female old age poverty is affected by family policy reforms which are meant to promote gender equality when young. Using our in house agent based simulation model IFSIM we show that sharing equally the parental leave can increase or reduce poverty among elderly women depending on the macro and behavioural (i.e. labour supply) responses that the reform off-sets. In general, the reform can be good for highly educated women, who will have an incentive to work more full time thanks to their higher earnings, which can compensate any loss in household income due to the man's staying home. For lower educated however, work might not pay as much and a reduction in labour supply might actually ensue (e.g. to reduce childcare costs). This will reduce also their pension rights at retirement. Furthermore, keeping men at home might slow down economic growth, and consequently growth of income pension accounts will be lower. This effect, combined with lower pension contributions (due to reduced labour supply), might result in higher poverty rates for women with lower education, compared to a scenario where the woman takes the whole leave. Other policies, such as more subsidised child care, might be an alternative worth considering to reduce female poverty in old age more evenly across educational levels.
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- Bergstrom, Ted & Blomquist, Soren, 1996.
"The political economy of subsidized day care,"
European Journal of Political Economy,
Elsevier, vol. 12(3), pages 443-457, November.
- Ted Bergstrom & Soren Blomquist, 1994. "Political Economy of Subsidized Day Care," Public Economics 9401001, EconWPA.
- Bergstrom, T. & Blomqust, S., 1993. "The Political Econmomy of Subsidized Day Care," Papers 1993-15, Uppsala - Working Paper Series.
- Bergstrom, T. & Blomquist, S., 1993. "The Political Economy of Subsidized Day Care," Papers 93-30, Michigan - Center for Research on Economic & Social Theory.
- Ted Bergstrom & Soren Blomquist, 1994. "The Political Economy of Publicly Supplied Day Care," Papers _034, University of Michigan, Department of Economics.
- Theodore C. Bergstrom & Sören Blomquist, . "The Political Economy of Subsidized Day Care," ELSE working papers 015, ESRC Centre on Economics Learning and Social Evolution.
- Baroni, Elisa, 2010. "Effects of Sharing Parental Leave on Pensioners' Poverty and Gender Inequality in Old Age. A Simulation in IFSIM," Arbetsrapport 2010:5, Institute for Futures Studies.
- Baroni, Elisa & Zamac, Jovan & Öberg, Gustav, 2009. "IFSIM Handbook," Arbetsrapport 2009:7, Institute for Futures Studies.
- Atkinson, A B, 1987. "On the Measurement of Poverty," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(4), pages 749-64, July.
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