Diversification and tunneling: Evidence from Indian business groups
We provide evidence suggesting an important yet largely unexplored motive for the diversified structure of emerging economy business groups is to facilitate expropriation of minority shareholders by controlling insiders through tunneling. Using firm level panel data from India, and defining the core firm of a group as the one with the largest asset base, we find that the relatedness of the activity of a group affiliate to the activity of the core firm is correlated with the wedge between control and cash flow rights of insiders as well as with the opacity in insider ownership. Firms with ownership-control wedge lower and ownership opacity higher relative to a group's core firm are more likely to be in activities unrelated to that of the core firm. Our findings are strengthened by evidence of tunneling in the same direction, from affiliates with wedge equal to or higher than that of the core firm to affiliates with wedge lower than that of the core firm. Taken together this suggests an expropriation motive for diversification: affiliate firms are located away from a business group's core firm to serve as destination points for funds tunneled from the group's core.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Karl V. Lins & Henri Servaes, 2002. "Is Corporate Diversification Beneficial in Emerging Market?," Financial Management, Financial Management Association, vol. 31(2), Summer.
- repec:tpr:qjecon:v:113:y:1998:i:2:p:531-552 is not listed on IDEAS
- Eric Friedman & Simon Johnson & Todd Mitton, 2003.
"Propping and Tunneling,"
NBER Working Papers
9949, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Mike Peng & Andrew Delios, 2006. "What determines the scope of the firm over time and around the world? An Asia Pacific perspective," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 385-405, December.
- Marianne Bertrand & Paras Mehta & Sendhil Mullainathan, 2000.
"Ferreting Out Tunneling: An Application to Indian Business Groups,"
NBER Working Papers
7952, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Heitor V. Almeida & Daniel Wolfenzon, 2006. "A Theory of Pyramidal Ownership and Family Business Groups," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(6), pages 2637-2680, December.
- Joh, Sung Wook, 2003. "Corporate governance and firm profitability: evidence from Korea before the economic crisis," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 287-322, May.
- Djankov, Simeon & La Porta, Rafael & Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Shleifer, Andrei, 2008.
"The law and economics of self-dealing,"
Journal of Financial Economics,
Elsevier, vol. 88(3), pages 430-465, June.
- Lopez-de-Silanes, Florencio & Djankov, Simeon & La Porta, Rafael & Shleifer, Andrei, 2008. "The Law and Economics of Self-dealing," Scholarly Articles 2907526, Harvard University Department of Economics.
- Simeon Djankov & Rafael LaPorta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer, 2005. "The Law and Economics of Self-Dealing," NBER Working Papers 11883, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Shleifer, Andrei & Vishny, Robert W, 1997.
" A Survey of Corporate Governance,"
Journal of Finance,
American Finance Association, vol. 52(2), pages 737-83, June.
- Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1995. "A Survey of Corporate Governance," Harvard Institute of Economic Research Working Papers 1741, Harvard - Institute of Economic Research.
- Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 1996. "A Survey of Corporate Governance," NBER Working Papers 5554, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Riyanto, Yohanes E. & Toolsema, Linda A., 2008.
"Tunneling and propping: A justification for pyramidal ownership,"
Journal of Banking & Finance,
Elsevier, vol. 32(10), pages 2178-2187, October.
- Yohanes E. Riyanto & Linda A. Toolsema, 2004. "Tunneling and Propping: A Justification for Pyramidal Ownership," Econometric Society 2004 Far Eastern Meetings 639, Econometric Society.
- Yohanes E. Riyanto & Linda A. Toolsema, 2004. "Tunneling and Propping: A Justification for Pyramidal Ownership," Departmental Working Papers wp0409, National University of Singapore, Department of Economics.
- Riyanto, Yohanes E. & Toolsema, Linda A., 2004. "Tunneling and Propping: A Justification for Pyramidal Ownership," Research Report 04E29, University of Groningen, Research Institute SOM (Systems, Organisations and Management).
- Yan-leung Cheung & P. Raghavendra Rau & Aris Stouraitis, 2004.
"Tunneling, Propping and Expropriation Evidence from Connected arty Transactions in Hong Kong,"
092004, Hong Kong Institute for Monetary Research.
- Cheung, Yan-Leung & Rau, P. Raghavendra & Stouraitis, Aris, 2006. "Tunneling, propping, and expropriation: evidence from connected party transactions in Hong Kong," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(2), pages 343-386, November.
- Montgomery, Cynthia A. & Hariharan, S., 1991. "Diversified expansion by large established firms," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 71-89, January.
- Jae-Seung Baek & Jun-Koo Kang & Inmoo Lee, 2006. "Business Groups and Tunneling: Evidencefrom Private Securities Offeringsby Korean Chaebols," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 61(5), pages 2415-2449, October.
- Claessens, Stijn & Fan, Joseph P.H. & Lang, Larry H.P., 2002.
"The Benefits and Costs of Group Affiliation: Evidence from East Asia,"
Working Paper Series
UNU-WIDER Research Paper , World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
- Claessens, Stijn & Fan, Joseph P.H. & Lang, Larry H.P., 2006. "The benefits and costs of group affiliation: Evidence from East Asia," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 7(1), pages 1-26, March.
- Claessens, Stijn & Fan, Joseph P.H. & Lang, Larry, 2002. "The Benefits and Costs of Group Affiliation: Evidence from East Asia," CEPR Discussion Papers 3364, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Tarun Khanna & Krishna Palepu, 2000. "Is Group Affiliation Profitable in Emerging Markets? An Analysis of Diversified Indian Business Groups," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(2), pages 867-891, 04.
- Dewenter, Kathryn & Novaes, Walter & Pettway, Richard H, 2001. "Visibility versus Complexity in Business Groups: Evidence from Japanese Keiretsu," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 74(1), pages 79-100, January.
- Stulz, ReneM., 1988. "Managerial control of voting rights : Financing policies and the market for corporate control," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1-2), pages 25-54, January.
- Leff, Nathaniel H, 1978. "Industrial Organization and Entrepreneurship in the Developing Countries: The Economic Groups," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 26(4), pages 661-75, July.
- Jang, Hasung & Kang, Hyung Cheol & Park, Kyung Suh, 2005. "The Choice of Group Structure: Divide and Rule," CEI Working Paper Series 2005-6, Center for Economic Institutions, Institute of Economic Research, Hitotsubashi University.
- Tarun Khanna & Yishay Yafeh, 2007. "Business Groups in Emerging Markets: Paragons or Parasites?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 45(2), pages 331-372, June.
- Fan, Joseph P H & Lang, Larry H P, 2000. "The Measurement of Relatedness: An Application to Corporate Diversification," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 73(4), pages 629-60, October.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jcecon:v:39:y:2011:i:3:p:349-367. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.