IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this article or follow this journal

Market liquidity in the financial crisis: The role of liquidity commonality and flight-to-quality

  • Rösch, Christoph G.
  • Kaserer, Christoph
Registered author(s):

    We examine the dynamics and the drivers of market liquidity during the financial crisis, using a unique volume-weighted spread measure. According to the literature we find that market liquidity is impaired when stock markets decline, implying a positive relation between market and liquidity risk. Moreover, this relationship is the stronger the deeper one digs into the order book. Even more interestingly, this paper sheds further light on so far puzzling features of market liquidity: liquidity commonality and flight-to-quality. We show that liquidity commonality varies over time, increases during market downturns, peaks at major crisis events and becomes weaker the deeper we look into the limit order book. Consistent with recent theoretical models that argue for a spiral effect between the financial sector’s funding liquidity and an asset’s market liquidity, we find that funding liquidity tightness induces an increase in liquidity commonality which then leads to market-wide liquidity dry-ups. Therefore our findings corroborate the view that market liquidity can be a driving force for financial contagion. Finally, we show that there is a positive relationship between credit risk and liquidity risk, i.e., there is a spread between liquidity costs of high and low credit quality stocks, and that in times of increased market uncertainty the impact of credit risk on liquidity risk intensifies. This corroborates the existence of a flight-to-quality or flight-to-liquidity phenomenon also on the stock markets.

    If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378426613000344
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.

    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Journal of Banking & Finance.

    Volume (Year): 37 (2013)
    Issue (Month): 7 ()
    Pages: 2284-2302

    as
    in new window

    Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:37:y:2013:i:7:p:2284-2302
    Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/jbf

    References listed on IDEAS
    Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

    as in new window
    1. Rodrigo Cifuentes & Gianluigi Ferrucci & Hyun Song Shin, 2005. "Liquidity risk and contagion," Bank of England working papers 264, Bank of England.
    2. Kwamie Dunbar, 2007. "US Corporate Default Swap Valuation: The Market Liquidity Hypothesis and Autonomous Credit Risk," Working papers 2007-08, University of Connecticut, Department of Economics.
    3. Manishi Prasad & Peter Wahlqvist & Rich Shikiar & Ya-Chen Tina Shih, 2004. "A," PharmacoEconomics, Springer Healthcare | Adis, vol. 22(4), pages 225-244.
    4. Shane A. Corwin, 1999. "Differences in Trading Behavior across NYSE Specialist Firms," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(2), pages 721-745, 04.
    5. Ang, Andrew & Chen, Joseph, 2002. "Asymmetric correlations of equity portfolios," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 63(3), pages 443-494, March.
    6. Carole Comerton-Forde & Terrence Hendershott & Charles M. Jones & Pamela C. Moulton & Mark S. Seasholes, 2010. "Time Variation in Liquidity: The Role of Market-Maker Inventories and Revenues," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(1), pages 295-331, 02.
    7. Hausman, Jerry A, 1978. "Specification Tests in Econometrics," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 46(6), pages 1251-71, November.
    8. Francis A. Longstaff, 2002. "The Flight-to-Liquidity Premium in U.S. Treasury Bond Prices," NBER Working Papers 9312, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Chordia, Tarun & Roll, Richard & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 2000. "Order Imbalance, Liquidity, and Market Returns," University of California at Los Angeles, Anderson Graduate School of Management qt7gh9t9w3, Anderson Graduate School of Management, UCLA.
    10. Hans R. Stoll, . "The Pricing of Security Dealer Services: An Empirical Study of NASDAQ Stocks," Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research Working Papers 13-77, Wharton School Rodney L. White Center for Financial Research.
    11. Lubos Pastor & Robert F. Stambaugh, 2001. "Liquidity Risk and Expected Stock Returns," NBER Working Papers 8462, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Kamara, Avraham & Lou, Xiaoxia & Sadka, Ronnie, 2008. "The divergence of liquidity commonality in the cross-section of stocks," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(3), pages 444-466, September.
    13. Olivier Renault & Jan Ericsson, 2000. "Liquidity and Credit Risk," FMG Discussion Papers dp362, Financial Markets Group.
    14. Lesmond, David A., 2005. "Liquidity of emerging markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(2), pages 411-452, August.
    15. Karolyi, G. Andrew & Lee, Kuan-Hui & van Dijk, Mathijs A., 2012. "Understanding commonality in liquidity around the world," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 105(1), pages 82-112.
    16. Hedvall, Kaj & Niemeyer, Jonas & Rosenqvist, Gunnar, 1997. "Do Buyers and Sellers Behave Similarly in a Limit Order Book? A High-Frequency Data Examination of the Finnish Stock Exchange," SSE/EFI Working Paper Series in Economics and Finance 160, Stockholm School of Economics.
    17. Long Chen & David A. Lesmond & Jason Wei, 2007. "Corporate Yield Spreads and Bond Liquidity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 62(1), pages 119-149, 02.
    18. Benston, George J. & Hagerman, Robert L., 1974. "Determinants of bid-asked spreads in the over-the-counter market," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 1(4), pages 353-364, December.
    19. Eduardo Levy Yeyati & Sergio L. Schmukler & Neeltje Van Horen, 2008. "Emerging Market Liquidity and Crises," Journal of the European Economic Association, MIT Press, vol. 6(2-3), pages 668-682, 04-05.
    20. Markus K. Brunnermeier & Lasse Heje Pedersen, 2009. "Market Liquidity and Funding Liquidity," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 22(6), pages 2201-2238, June.
    21. Francis A. Longstaff & Sanjay Mithal & Eric Neis, 2004. "Corporate Yield Spreads: Default Risk or Liquidity? New Evidence from the Credit-Default Swap Market," NBER Working Papers 10418, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    22. Brockman, Paul & Chung, Dennis Y. & Pérignon, Christophe, 2009. "Commonality in Liquidity: A Global Perspective," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 44(04), pages 851-882, August.
    23. Domowitz, Ian & Hansch, Oliver & Wang, Xiaoxin, 2005. "Liquidity commonality and return co-movement," Journal of Financial Markets, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 351-376, November.
    24. Alessandro Beber & Michael W. Brandt & Kenneth A. Kavajecz, 2006. "Flight-to-Quality or Flight-to-Liquidity? Evidence From the Euro-Area Bond Market," NBER Working Papers 12376, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    25. Korajczyk, Robert A. & Sadka, Ronnie, 2008. "Pricing the commonality across alternative measures of liquidity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 45-72, January.
    26. Amihud, Yakov & Mendelson, Haim, 1986. "Asset pricing and the bid-ask spread," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 223-249, December.
    27. Randi Næs & Johannes A. Skjeltorp & Bernt Arne Ødegaard, 2011. "Stock Market Liquidity and the Business Cycle," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 66(1), pages 139-176, 02.
    28. Antonio Bernardo & Ivo Welch, 2006. "Liquidity and Financial Market Runs," Yale School of Management Working Papers ysm280, Yale School of Management, revised 01 Aug 2003.
    29. Randi Næs & Johannes A. Skjeltorp & Bernt Arne Ødegard, 2008. "Liquidity and the business cycle," Working Paper 2008/11, Norges Bank.
    30. Sebastian Stange & Christoph Kaserer, 2011. "The Impact of Liquidity Risk: A Fresh Look," International Review of Finance, International Review of Finance Ltd., vol. 11(3), pages 269-301, 09.
    31. Lawrence R. Glosten & Paul R. Milgrom, 1983. "Bid, Ask and Transaction Prices in a Specialist Market with Heterogeneously Informed Traders," Discussion Papers 570, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
    32. Lee, Kuan-Hui, 2011. "The world price of liquidity risk," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 99(1), pages 136-161, January.
    33. Acharya, Viral V & Pedersen, Lasse Heje, 2003. "Asset Pricing with Liquidity Risk," CEPR Discussion Papers 3749, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    34. Alexander Kempf & Daniel Mayston, 2008. "Liquidity Commonality Beyond Best Prices," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 31(1), pages 25-40.
    35. Xiong, Wei, 2001. "Convergence trading with wealth effects: an amplification mechanism in financial markets," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 62(2), pages 247-292, November.
    36. Hasbrouck, Joel & Seppi, Duane J., 2001. "Common factors in prices, order flows, and liquidity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(3), pages 383-411, March.
    37. Chordia, Tarun & Roll, Richard & Subrahmanyam, Avanidhar, 2000. "Commonality in liquidity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 56(1), pages 3-28, April.
    38. Liu, Weimin, 2006. "A liquidity-augmented capital asset pricing model," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 82(3), pages 631-671, December.
    39. Albert S. Kyle, 2001. "Contagion as a Wealth Effect," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(4), pages 1401-1440, 08.
    40. Sadka, Ronnie, 2006. "Momentum and post-earnings-announcement drift anomalies: The role of liquidity risk," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 80(2), pages 309-349, May.
    41. Allaudeen Hameed & Wenjin Kang & S. Viswanathan, 2010. "Stock Market Declines and Liquidity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 65(1), pages 257-293, 02.
    42. Copeland, Thomas E & Galai, Dan, 1983. " Information Effects on the Bid-Ask Spread," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 38(5), pages 1457-69, December.
    43. Hans R. Stoll, 2000. "Presidential Address: Friction," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(4), pages 1479-1514, 08.
    44. Tarun Chordia, 2001. "Market Liquidity and Trading Activity," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 56(2), pages 501-530, 04.
    45. Hanley, Kathleen Weiss & Kumar, A. Arun & Seguin, Paul J., 1993. "Price stabilization in the market for new issues," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 177-197, October.
    46. Michael J. Barclay & William G. Christie & Jeffrey H. Harris & Eugene Kandel & Paul H. Schultz, 1999. "Effects of Market Reform on the Trading Costs and Depths of Nasdaq Stocks," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 54(1), pages 1-34, 02.
    47. Coughenour, Jay F. & Saad, Mohsen M., 2004. "Common market makers and commonality in liquidity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 73(1), pages 37-69, July.
    48. Paul Brockman & Dennis Y. Chung, 2002. "Commonality in Liquidity: Evidence from an Order-Driven Market Structure," Journal of Financial Research, Southern Finance Association;Southwestern Finance Association, vol. 25(4), pages 521-539.
    49. Nicolae B. Garleanu & Lasse H. Pedersen, 2007. "Liquidity and Risk Management," NBER Working Papers 12887, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    50. Bachrach, Benjamin & Galai, Dan, 1979. "The Risk-Return Relationship and Stock Prices," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 14(02), pages 421-441, June.
    51. Barclay, Michael J. & Smith, Clifford Jr., 1988. "Corporate payout policy : Cash Dividends versus Open-Market Repurchases," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 61-82, October.
    52. Harris, Lawrence E, 1994. "Minimum Price Variations, Discrete Bid-Ask Spreads, and Quotation Sizes," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 7(1), pages 149-78.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

    When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:37:y:2013:i:7:p:2284-2302. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

    If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.