IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/intman/v15y2009i3p286-295.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Managing diverse risks: An integrative framework

Author

Listed:
  • Hagigi, Moshe
  • Sivakumar, Kumar

Abstract

Risk is a crucial part of any business and managing risk is an essential function for management. This paper reviews current managerial practice and academic research in managing diverse risks. There are numerous elements of risk, some exogenous to the firm and others that are endogenous. In recent years exogenous elements of risk have increased both in number and complexity, and distinctions have blurred between national and international elements of risks because of the integration across borders of markets, institutions, and political and operational risks. An explicit classification of risks as exogenous and endogenous will focus managerial attention to the changing exogenous elements, to the often ignored endogenous elements, and to the needed integration of managing exogenous and endogenous risks. While there is an increasing body of research examining risk, there is a need to examine exogenous risk elements as systems of risk rather than as independent elements and integrate endogenous elements including behavioral and incentive-related aspects with the systems of exogenous risks. Additionally, international case studies and surveys about risk perceptions and attitudes of managers across different organizations and within levels of organizations will improve our understanding of the diverse risks faced by multi-national corporations.

Suggested Citation

  • Hagigi, Moshe & Sivakumar, Kumar, 2009. "Managing diverse risks: An integrative framework," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 15(3), pages 286-295, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:15:y:2009:i:3:p:286-295
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1075425309000465
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Ilia Tsetlin & Robert L. Winkler, 2005. "Risky Choices and Correlated Background Risk," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 51(9), pages 1336-1345, September.
    2. Daniel Kahneman & Dan Lovallo, 1993. "Timid Choices and Bold Forecasts: A Cognitive Perspective on Risk Taking," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 39(1), pages 17-31, January.
    3. Reid W Click, 2005. "Financial and political risks in US direct foreign investment," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 36(5), pages 559-575, September.
    4. Briance Mascarenhas, 1982. "Coping With Uncertainty in International Business," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 13(2), pages 87-98, June.
    5. G R G Benito & B Grøgaard & R Narula, 2003. "Environmental influences on MNE subsidiary roles: economic integration and the Nordic countries," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 34(5), pages 443-456, September.
    6. Marcello Spanò, 2007. "Managerial Ownership and Corporate Hedging," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 34(7-8), pages 1245-1280.
    7. Jeffrey D Simon, 1984. "A Theoretical Perspective on Political Risk," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 15(3), pages 123-143, September.
    8. Laurent L Jacque, 1981. "Management of Foreign Exchange Risk: A Review Article," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 12(1), pages 81-101, March.
    9. Robert W Faff & Andrew Marshall, 2005. "International evidence on the determinants of foreign exchange rate exposure of multinational corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 36(5), pages 539-558, September.
    10. Kahneman, Daniel & Tversky, Amos, 1979. "Prospect Theory: An Analysis of Decision under Risk," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 47(2), pages 263-291, March.
    11. Bartov, Eli & Givoly, Dan & Hayn, Carla, 2002. "The rewards to meeting or beating earnings expectations," Journal of Accounting and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(2), pages 173-204, June.
    12. Samuelson, William & Zeckhauser, Richard, 1988. "Status Quo Bias in Decision Making," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 1(1), pages 7-59, March.
    13. Wilson Huynh & Girijasankar Mallik & Samanthala Hettihewa, 2006. "The impact of macroeconomic variables, demographic structure and compulsory superannuation on share prices: the case of Australia," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 37(5), pages 687-698, September.
    14. Marie-Claude Beaulieu & Jean-Claude Cosset & Naceur Essaddam, 2005. "The impact of political risk on the volatility of stock returns: the case of Canada," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 36(6), pages 701-718, November.
    15. Witold J. Henisz, 2002. "The institutional environment for infrastructure investment," Industrial and Corporate Change, Oxford University Press, vol. 11(2), pages 355-389.
    16. Christos Pantzalis & Betty J Simkins & Paul A Laux, 2001. "Operational Hedges and the Foreign Exchange Exposure of U.S. Multinational Corporations," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 32(4), pages 793-812, December.
    17. Jeffrey J Reuer & Oded Shenkar & Roberto Ragozzino, 2004. "Mitigating risk in international mergers and acquisitions: the role of contingent payouts," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 35(1), pages 19-32, January.
    18. Fox, Craig R & Rogers, Brett A & Tversky, Amos, 1996. "Options Traders Exhibit Subadditive Decision Weights," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 13(1), pages 5-17, July.
    19. Mona V Makhija & Alice C Stewart, 2002. "The Effect of National Context on Perceptions of Risk: A Comparison of Planned Versus Free-Market Managers," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 33(4), pages 737-756, December.
    20. Christine M. Cumming & Beverly Hirtle, 2001. "The challenges of risk management in diversified financial companies," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Mar, pages 1-17.
    21. Kent D Miller & Jeffrey J Reuer, 1998. "Firm Strategy and Economic Exposure to Foreign Exchange Rate Movements," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 29(3), pages 493-513, September.
    22. Briance Mascarenhas & Ole Christian Sand, 1985. "Country-Risk Assessment System in Banks: Patterns and Performance," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 16(1), pages 19-35, March.
    23. André P. Liebenberg & Robert E. Hoyt, 2003. "The Determinants of Enterprise Risk Management: Evidence From the Appointment of Chief Risk Officers," Risk Management and Insurance Review, American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 6(1), pages 37-52, February.
    24. Chow, Clare Chua & Sarin, Rakesh K, 2001. "Comparative Ignorance and the Ellsberg Paradox," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 22(2), pages 129-139, March.
    25. Lisa Meulbroek, 2002. "The Promise and Challenge of Integrated Risk Management," Risk Management and Insurance Review, American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 5(1), pages 55-66, September.
    26. Craig R. Fox & Amos Tversky, 1998. "A Belief-Based Account of Decision Under Uncertainty," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(7), pages 879-895, July.
    27. Anne E. Kleffner & Ryan B. Lee & Bill McGannon, 2003. "The Effect of Corporate Governance on the Use of Enterprise Risk Management: Evidence From Canada," Risk Management and Insurance Review, American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 6(1), pages 53-73, February.
    28. Camerer, Colin & Weber, Martin, 1992. "Recent Developments in Modeling Preferences: Uncertainty and Ambiguity," Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Springer, vol. 5(4), pages 325-370, October.
    29. William J. Baumol, 1963. "An Expected Gain-Confidence Limit Criterion for Portfolio Selection," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 10(1), pages 174-182, October.
    30. Charles A. Holt & Susan K. Laury, 2002. "Risk Aversion and Incentive Effects," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 92(5), pages 1644-1655, December.
    31. Kent D Miller, 1992. "A Framework for Integrated Risk Management in International Business," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 23(2), pages 311-331, June.
    32. David M Reeb & Chuck C Y Kwok & H Young Baek, 1998. "Systematic Risk of the Multinational Corporation," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan;Academy of International Business, vol. 29(2), pages 263-279, June.
    33. James G. March & Zur Shapira, 1987. "Managerial Perspectives on Risk and Risk Taking," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 33(11), pages 1404-1418, November.
    34. Shigeyuki Goto, 2007. "The Bounds of Classical Risk Management and the Importance of a Behavioral Approach," Risk Management and Insurance Review, American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 10(2), pages 267-282, September.
    35. Elke U. Weber & Christopher Hsee, 1998. "Cross-Cultural Differences in Risk Perception, but Cross-Cultural Similarities in Attitudes Towards Perceived Risk," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(9), pages 1205-1217, September.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Serena Aureli & Federica Salvatori, 2013. "Investigation of risk management and risk disclosure practices of Italian listed local utilities," FINANCIAL REPORTING, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2013(1), pages 121-167.
    2. Contractor, Farok J. & Woodley, James A., 2015. "How the alliance pie is split: Value appropriation by each partner in cross-border technology transfer alliances," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(3), pages 535-547.
    3. Mauri, Alfredo J. & Neiva de Figueiredo, João, 2012. "Strategic Patterns of Internationalization and Performance Variability: Effects of US-Based MNC Cross-Border Dispersion, Integration, and Outsourcing," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 38-51.
    4. Stranieri, Stefanella & Banterle, Alessandro, 2015. "Voluntary traceability standards: which is the role of risk?," 2015 Conference, August 9-14, 2015, Milan, Italy 212058, International Association of Agricultural Economists.
    5. Wioletta Skrodzka, 2015. "The Assessment Of The Efficiency Of Investment In The Shares Of The Polish It Sector," Polish Journal of Management Studies, Czestochowa Technical University, Department of Management, vol. 12(1), pages 186-197, DEcember.

    More about this item

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:15:y:2009:i:3:p:286-295. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/601266/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.