Fictitious play in 3x3 games: Chaos and dithering behaviour
In the 60's Shapley provided an example of a two player fictitious play which generates periodic behaviour. In this game, player A prefers to copy B's behaviour and player B prefers to play one strategy ahead of player A. In this paper we continue to study a family of games which generalise Shapley's example by introducing an external parameter, and prove that there exists an abundance of periodic and chaotic behaviour with players dithering between different strategies. The reason for all this, is that there exists a periodic orbit (consisting of playing mixed strategies) which is of 'jitter type': such an orbit is neither attracting, repelling or of saddle type as nearby orbits jitter closer and further away from it in a manner which is reminiscent of a random walk motion. We prove that this behaviour holds for an open set of games.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Milgrom, Paul & Roberts, John, 1991. "Adaptive and sophisticated learning in normal form games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 3(1), pages 82-100, February.
- Monderer, Dov & Shapley, Lloyd S., 1996. "Fictitious Play Property for Games with Identical Interests," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 258-265, January.
- Matsui, Akihiko, 1992. "Best response dynamics and socially stable strategies," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 57(2), pages 343-362, August.
- Jordan J. S., 1993. "Three Problems in Learning Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 5(3), pages 368-386, July.
- Drew Fudenberg & David K. Levine, 1998.
"The Theory of Learning in Games,"
MIT Press Books,
The MIT Press,
edition 1, volume 1, number 0262061945, June.
- Berger, Ulrich, 2007. "Two more classes of games with the continuous-time fictitious play property," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 60(2), pages 247-261, August.
- Berger, Ulrich, 2008. "Learning in games with strategic complementarities revisited," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 143(1), pages 292-301, November.
- Josef Hofbauer & Sylvain Sorin & Yannick Viossat, 2009.
"Time Average Replicator and Best Reply Dynamics,"
- Gaunersdorfer Andrea & Hofbauer Josef, 1995.
"Fictitious Play, Shapley Polygons, and the Replicator Equation,"
Games and Economic Behavior,
Elsevier, vol. 11(2), pages 279-303, November.
- A. Gaunersdorfer & J. Hofbauer, 2010. "Fictitious Play, Shapley Polygons and the Replicator Equation," Levine's Working Paper Archive 438, David K. Levine.
- Monderer, Dov & Shapley, Lloyd S., 1996. "Potential Games," Games and Economic Behavior, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 124-143, May.
- Michel Benaïm & Josef Hofbauer & Sylvain Sorin, 2005. "Stochastic Approximations and Differential Inclusions; Part II: Applications," Working Papers hal-00242974, HAL.
- Michel Benaim & Josef Hofbauer & Sylvain Sorin, 2005. "Stochastic Approximations and Differential Inclusions II: Applications," Levine's Bibliography 784828000000000098, UCLA Department of Economics.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:gamebe:v:73:y:2011:i:1:p:262-286. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Zhang, Lei)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.